2. Sūrat al-Baqarah

٢۔ سُورَةُ البَقَرَة

2.104 Elevated ranks of the messengers such as Moses and Jesus. The nations of pious prophets differed with each other.

٢۔١٠٤ مقطع في سُورَةُ البَقَرَة


Those messengers - some of them We caused to exceed others. Among them were those to whom Allah spoke, and He raised some of them in degree. And We gave Jesus, the Son of Mary, clear proofs, and We supported him with the Pure Spirit. If Allah had willed, those ˹generations˺ succeeding them would not have fought each other after the clear proofs had come to them. But they differed, and some of them believed and some of them disbelieved. And if Allah had willed, they would not have fought each other, but Allah does what He intends.  

Those (tilka is the subject) messengers (al-rusul is either an adjective or the predicate) some We have preferred above others, by assigning a particular trait to one not found in the other; some there are to whom God spoke, such as Moses, and some He raised in rank, namely, Muhammad (s), on account of his call being to all peoples, his being the Seal of the Prophets, on account of the superiority of his community to all others, the sundry miracles and the many special qualities. And We gave Jesus son of Mary the clear proofs, and confirmed him, strengthened him, with the Holy Spirit, namely, Gabriel who would accompany him wherever he went. And had God willed, that all people be guided, those who came after them, after the messengers, that is, their communities, would not have fought against one another after the clear proofs had come to them, because of their disagreement and their leading one another astray; but they fell into variance, as He willed, and some of them believed, and adhered firmly to his faith, and some disbelieved, as the Christians did after Jesus (al-Masīh), and had God willed they would not have fought against one another (repeated here for emphasis), but God does whatever He desires, giving success to whomever He will and disappointment to whomever He will.

تِلْكَ الرُّسُلُ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۘ مِنْهُمْ مَنْ كَلَّمَ اللَّهُ ۖ وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَهُمْ دَرَجَاتٍ ۚ وَآتَيْنَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَيَّدْنَاهُ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ ۗ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا اقْتَتَلَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ وَلَٰكِنِ اخْتَلَفُوا فَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ آمَنَ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ كَفَرَ ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا اقْتَتَلُوا وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ يَفْعَلُ مَا يُرِيدُ  

{تلك} مبتدأ {الرسل} نعت أو عطف بيان والخبر {فضلنا بعضهم على بعض} بتخصيصه بمنقبة ليست لغيره {منهم من كلّم الله} كموسى {ورفع بعضهم} أي محمد ﷺ {درجات} على غيره بعموم الدعوة وختم النبوة وتفضيل أمته على سائر الأمم والمعجزات المتكاثرة والخصائص العديدة {وآتينا عيسى بن مريم البينات وأيدناه} قويناه {بروح القدس} جبريل يسير معه حيث سار {ولو شاء الله} هدى الناس جميعا {ما اقتتل الذين من بعدهم} بعد الرسل أي أممهم {من بعد ما جاءتهم البينات} لاختلافهم وتضليل بعضهم بعضا {ولكن اختلفوا} لمشيئته ذلك {فمنهم من آمن} ثبت على إيمانه {ومنهم من كفر} كالنصارى بعد المسيح {ولو شاء الله ما اقتتلوا} تأكيد {ولكن الله يفعل ما يريد} من توفيق من شاء وخذلان من شاء.