Reward for fasting Ramadan plus six days of Shawwal amounts to fasting a lifetime

muslim:1164aYaḥyá b. Ayyūb And Qutaybah b. Saʿīd Waʿalī b. Ḥujr > Ismāʿīl > Ibn Ayyūb > Ismāʿīl b. Jaʿfar > Saʿd b. Saʿīd b. Qays > ʿUmar b. Thābit b. al-Ḥārith al-Khazrajī > Abū Ayyūb al-Anṣārī

He who observed the fast of Ramadan and then followed it with six (fasts) of Shawwal. it would be as if he fasted perpetually.  

مسلم:١١٦٤aحَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ أَيُّوبَ وَقُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ حُجْرٍ جَمِيعًا عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ قَالَ ابْنُ أَيُّوبَ حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ أَخْبَرَنِي سَعْدُ بْنُ سَعِيدِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ ثَابِتِ بْنِ الْحَارِثِ الْخَزْرَجِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ الأَنْصَارِيِّ ؓ أَنَّهُ حَدَّثَهُ

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ﷺ قَالَ مَنْ صَامَ رَمَضَانَ ثُمَّ أَتْبَعَهُ سِتًّا مِنْ شَوَّالٍ كَانَ كَصِيَامِ الدَّهْرِ  

The one deprived of all goodness

ibnmajah:1644Abū Badr ʿAbbād b. al-Walīd > Muḥammad b. Bilāl > ʿImrān al-Qaṭṭān > Qatādah > Anas b. Mālik

“Ramadan began, and the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: ‘This month has come to you, and in it there is a night that is better than a thousand months. Whoever is deprived of it is deprived of all goodness, and no one is deprived of its goodness except one who is truly deprived.’”  

ابن ماجة:١٦٤٤حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَدْرٍ عَبَّادُ بْنُ الْوَلِيدِ حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بِلاَلٍ حَدَّثَنَا عِمْرَانُ الْقَطَّانُ عَنْ قَتَادَةَ عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ قَالَ

دَخَلَ رَمَضَانُ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ إِنَّ هَذَا الشَّهْرَ قَدْ حَضَرَكُمْ وَفِيهِ لَيْلَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ مَنْ حُرِمَهَا فَقَدْ حُرِمَ الْخَيْرَ كُلَّهُ وَلاَ يُحْرَمُ خَيْرَهَا إِلاَّ مَحْرُومٌ  

Our heart as an advisor

ahmad-zuhd:1768ʿAbdullāh from my father > al-Aswad b. ʿĀmir > Ḥammād > Ḥabīb > Ibn Sīrīn

If Allah intends good for His servant, He will provide him with an advisor from his own heart who commands him and prohibits him."  

الزهد لأحمد:١٧٦٨حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي حَدَّثَنَا الْأَسْوَدُ بْنُ عَامِرٍ حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ عَنْ حَبِيبٍ عَنِ ابْنِ سِيرِينَ قَالَ

«إِذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ بِعَبْدٍ خَيْرًا جَعَلَ لَهُ وَاعِظًا مِنْ قَلْبِهِ يَأْمُرُهُ وَيَنْهَاهُ»  

Allah has cursed alcohol, its producers, its facilitators, and its consumers

tirmidhi:1295ʿAbdullāh b. Munīr > Abū ʿĀṣim > Shabīb b. Bishr > Anas b. Mālik

"The Messenger of Allah ﷺ cursed ten involved in wine: The one who presses it, the one who has it pressed, its drinker, its carrier, and the one it is carried to, its server, its seller, the consumption of its price, the one who purchases it and the one it was purchased for."  

[Abu 'Eisa said:] This Hadith is Gharib as a narration of Anas. Similar to this has been reported from Ibn 'Abbas, Ibn Mas'ud, and Ibn 'Umar, from the Prophet ﷺ.
الترمذي:١٢٩٥حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُنِيرٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَاصِمٍ عَنْ شَبِيبِ بْنِ بِشْرٍ عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ قَالَ

لَعَنَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ فِي الْخَمْرِ عَشَرَةً عَاصِرَهَا وَمُعْتَصِرَهَا وَشَارِبَهَا وَحَامِلَهَا وَالْمَحْمُولَةَ إِلَيْهِ وَسَاقِيَهَا وَبَائِعَهَا وَآكِلَ ثَمَنِهَا وَالْمُشْتَرِيَ لَهَا وَالْمُشْتَرَاةَ لَهُ  

قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ غَرِيبٌ مِنْ حَدِيثِ أَنَسٍ وَقَدْ رُوِيَ نَحْوُ هَذَا عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ وَابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ وَابْنِ عُمَرَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ ﷺ

Fitrah (Zakat al-Fitr) is a kaffarah for fasting person's unbefitting speech

abudawud:1609Maḥmūd b. Khālid al-Dimashqī And ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥman al-Samarqandī > Marwān > ʿAbdullāh

The Messenger of Allah ﷺ prescribed Zakat al-Fitr as a purification ˹and a kaffarah (expiation)˺ of the fasting person for any empty and obscene talk and ˹for it to be˺ as food for the needy. If anyone pays it before the ˹Eid˺ prayer, it will be accepted as zakat. If anyone pays it after the prayer, that will be a sadaqah like other sadaqahs.  

أبو داود:١٦٠٩حَدَّثَنَا مَحْمُودُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ الدِّمَشْقِيُّ وَعَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ السَّمَرْقَنْدِيُّ قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا مَرْوَانُ قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو يَزِيدَ الْخَوْلاَنِيُّ وَكَانَ شَيْخَ صِدْقٍ وَكَانَ ابْنُ وَهْبٍ يَرْوِي عَنْهُ حَدَّثَنَا سَيَّارُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ قَالَ مَحْمُودٌ الصَّدَفِيُّ عَنْ عِكْرِمَةَ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ

فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ زَكَاةَ الْفِطْرِ طُهْرَةً لِلصَّائِمِ مِنَ اللَّغْوِ وَالرَّفَثِ وَطُعْمَةً لِلْمَسَاكِينِ مَنْ أَدَّاهَا قَبْلَ الصَّلاَةِ فَهِيَ زَكَاةٌ مَقْبُولَةٌ وَمَنْ أَدَّاهَا بَعْدَ الصَّلاَةِ فَهِيَ صَدَقَةٌ مِنَ الصَّدَقَاتِ  

Ibn Masud took seventy surahs from the Prophet ﷺ

ahmad:3599ʿAffān > Ḥammād b. Salamah > ʿĀṣim

Then Abū Bakr came to him with a carved rock, so he collected water in it and Abū Bakr and I drank from it. Then I went to him afterwards and said, "Teach me from this Quran." He said, "Indeed, you are a young boy to be taught." I then took from him seventy surahs."  

أحمد:٣٥٩٩حَدَّثَنَا عَفَّانُ حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادُ بْنُ سَلَمَةَ عَنْ عَاصِمٍ بِإِسْنَادِهِ قَالَ

فَأَتَاهُ أَبُو بَكْرٍ بِصَخْرَةٍ مَنْقُورَةٍ فَاحْتَلَبَ فِيهَا فَشَرِبَ وَشَرِبَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ وَشَرِبْتُ۔ قَالَ ثُمَّ أَتَيْتُهُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ قُلْتُ: عَلِّمْنِي مِنْ هَذَا الْقُرْآنِ۔ قَالَ: «إِنَّكَ غُلَامٌ مُعَلَّمٌ۔» قَالَ: فَأَخَذْتُ مِنْ فِيهِ سَبْعِينَ سُورَةً۔  

Raising of the hands (rafʿ al-yadayn رفع اليدين) only once at the beginning of the Ṣalāh

tirmidhi:257Hannād > Wakīʿ > Sufyān > ʿĀṣim b. Kulayb > ʿAbd al-Raḥman b. al-Aswad > ʿAlqamah

ʿAbdullāh b. Masʿūd said: "Shall I not demonstrate the Ṣalāh of Messenger ﷺ of Allah to you?" Then he offered the Ṣalāh and he did not raise his hands except while saying the first takbīr."  

And in the narration from al-Barāʾ b ʿAzib, Abu ʿĪsá said that the hadith of Ibn Masʿūd is a Ḥasan, and with it, several knowledgeable individuals among the companions of the Prophet ﷺ and the followers concur. This is the statement of Sufyān al-Thawrī and the people of Kūfah.
الترمذي:٢٥٧حَدَّثَنَا هَنَّادٌ حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ عَنْ سُفْيَانَ عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ كُلَيْبٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الأَسْوَدِ عَنْ عَلْقَمَةَ قَالَ

قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَسْعُودٍ أَلاَ أُصَلِّي بِكُمْ صَلاَةَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ﷺ؟ فَصَلَّى، فَلَمْ يَرْفَعْ يَدَيْهِ إِلاَّ فِي أَوَّلِ مَرَّةٍ۔  

قَالَ وَفِي الْبَابِ عَنِ الْبَرَاءِ بْنِ عَازِبٍ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى حَدِيثُ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ وَبِهِ يَقُولُ غَيْرُ وَاحِدٍ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ ﷺ وَالتَّابِعِينَ وَهُوَ قَوْلُ سُفْيَانَ الثَّوْرِيِّ وَأَهْلِ الْكُوفَةِ

The Prophet ﷺ said Āmīn three times to the misfortune of three types of people who lose opportunities to earn rewards

hakim:7256Muḥammad b. Ṣāliḥ And ʾIbrāhīm b. ʿIṣmah > al-Sarī > Khuzaymah > Saʿīd b. Abū Maryam > Muḥammad b. Hilāl > Saʿd b. Isḥāq b. Kaʿb b. ʿUjrah from his father > Kaʿb b. ʿUjrah

The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, "Come toward the pulpit," and we all came. When he climbed a step, he said, "Āmīn", and when he climbed the second step he said, "Āmīn", and when he climbed the third step he said, "Āmīn. When he came down ˹after the sermon˺ we asked, "O Messenger of Allah, we heard something from you that we had not heard before."

He said, "Jibrīl, peace be upon him, ˹came˺ to me and said, (1) 'Away with the one who found Ramaḍān and he was not forgiven.'", and I said, 'Āmīn.'"

"When I climbed the second ˹step˺ he said, (2) 'Away with the one to him when I (Allah) am mentioned and he does not send ṣalāh upon you.'"

"When I climbed the third ˹step˺ he said, (3) 'Away with the one who finds his parents in old age or ˹at least˺ one of them and they do not become ˹a means˺ for him to enter Jannah.' And I said, 'Āmīn.'"  

This ḥadīth has an authentic chain but they (Bukhārī and Muslim) did not collect it.
الحاكم:٧٢٥٦حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ صَالِحٍ وَإِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ عِصْمَةَ قَالَا ثَنَا السَّرِيُّ عَنْ خُزَيْمَةَ ثَنَا سَعِيدُ بْنُ أَبِي مَرْيَمَ ثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ هِلَالٍ حَدَّثَنِي سَعْدُ بْنُ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ كَعْبِ بْنِ عُجْرَةَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ كَعْبِ بْنِ عُجْرَةَ قَالَ

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ «احْضَرُوا الْمِنْبَرَ» فَحَضَرْنَا فَلَمَّا ارْتَقَى دَرَجَةً قَالَ «آمِينَ۔» فَلَمَّا ارْتَقَى الدَّرَجَةَ الثَّانِيَةَ قَالَ «آمِينَ۔» فَلَمَّا ارْتَقَى الدَّرَجَةَ الثَّالِثَةَ قَالَ «آمِينَ۔» فَلَمَّا نَزَلَ قُلْنَا: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ لَقَدْ سَمِعْنَا مِنْكَ الْيَوْمَ شَيْئًا مَا كُنَّا نَسْمَعُهُ۔

قَالَ: «إِنَّ جِبْرِيلَ عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ عَرَضَ لِي فَقَالَ: (١) بُعْدًا لِمَنْ أَدْرَكَ رَمَضَانَ فَلَمْ يَغْفَرْ لَهُ۔ قُلْتُ: آمِينَ۔

فَلَمَّا رَقِيتُ الثَّانِيَةَ قَالَ: (٢) بُعْدًا لِمَنْ ذُكِرْتُ عِنْدَهُ فَلَمْ يُصَلِّ عَلَيْكَ۔ قُلْتُ: آمِينَ۔

فَلَمَّا رَقِيتُ الثَّالِثَةَ قَالَ: (٣) بُعْدًا لِمَنْ أَدْرَكَ أَبَوَاهُ الْكِبَرَ عِنْدَهُ أَوْ أَحَدُهُمَا فَلَمْ يُدْخِلَاهُ الْجَنَّةَ۔ قُلْتُ: آمِينَ۔»  

هَذَا حَدِيثٌ صَحِيحُ الْإِسْنَادِ وَلَمْ يُخَرِّجَاهُ صحيح

Dua accepted every day and night of Ramadan

ahmad:7450Abū Muʿāwiyah > al-Aʿmash > Abū Ṣāliḥ > Abū Hurayrah or > Abū Saʿīd > Shak / al-Aʿmash

the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, "Allah has those who are freed ˹from the Hellfire˺ in every day and night ˹of Ramaḍān˺. Every servant among them has a duʿāʾ that will be answered."  

أحمد:٧٤٥٠حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مُعَاوِيَةَ حَدَّثَنَا الْأَعْمَشُ عَنْ أَبِي صَالِحٍ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ أَوْ عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ هُوَ شَكَّ يَعْنِي الْأَعْمَشَ قَالَ

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ ﷺ «إِنَّ لِلَّهِ عُتَقَاءَ فِي كُلِّ يَوْمٍ وَلَيْلَةٍ۔ لِكُلِّ عَبْدٍ مِنْهُمْ دَعْوَةٌ مُسْتَجَابَةٌ۔»  

The event of Miraj of the Prophet ﷺ ascending through the seven skies

bukhari:349Yaḥyá b. Bukayr > al-Layth > Yūnus > Ibn Shihāb > Anas b. Mālik

Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, "While I was at Mecca the roof of my house was opened and Gabriel descended, opened my chest, and washed it with Zamzam water. Then he brought a golden tray full of wisdom and faith and having poured its contents into my chest, he closed it. Then he took my hand and ascended with me to the nearest heaven."

"When I reached the nearest heaven, Gabriel said to the gatekeeper of the heaven, 'Open (the gate).' The gatekeeper asked, 'Who is it?' Gabriel answered: 'Gabriel.' He asked, 'Is there anyone with you?' Gabriel replied, 'Yes, Muhammad I is with me.' He asked, 'Has he been called?' Gabriel said, 'Yes.' So the gate was opened and we went over the nearest heaven and there we saw a man sitting with some people on his right and some on his left. When he looked towards his right, he laughed and when he looked toward his left he wept. Then he said, 'Welcome! O pious Prophet and pious son.' I asked Gabriel, 'Who is he?' He replied, 'He is Adam and the people on his right and left are the souls of his offspring. Those on his right are the people of Paradise and those on his left are the people of Hell and when he looks towards his right he laughs and when he looks towards his left he weeps.'"

"Then he ascended with me till he reached the second heaven and he (Gabriel) said to its gatekeeper, 'Open (the gate).' The gatekeeper said to him the same as the gatekeeper of the first heaven had said and he opened the gate."

Anas said: Abu Dhar added that the Prophet ﷺ met Adam, Idris, Moses, Jesus and Abraham, he (Abu Dhar) did not mention on which heaven they were but he mentioned that he (the Prophet ﷺ ) met Adam on the nearest heaven and Abraham on the sixth heaven.

Anas said, When Gabriel along with the Prophet ﷺ passed by Idris, "he said said, 'Welcome! O pious Prophet and pious brother.' I asked, 'Who is he?' Gabriel replied, 'He is Idris."

"Then I passed by Moses and he said, 'Welcome! O pious Prophet and pious brother.' I asked Gabriel, 'Who is he?' Gabriel replied, 'He is Moses.'"

"Then I passed by Jesus and he said, 'Welcome! O pious brother and pious Prophet.' I asked, 'Who is he?' Gabriel replied, 'He is Jesus."

"Then I passed by Abraham and he said, 'Welcome! O pious Prophet and pious son.' I asked Gabriel, 'Who is he?' Gabriel replied, 'He is Abraham.'"

The Prophet ﷺ added, 'Then Gabriel ascended with me to a place where I heard the creaking of the pens."

Ibn Hazm and Anas bin Malik said: The Prophet ﷺ said, "Then Allah enjoined fifty prayers on my followers when I returned with this order of Allah, I passed by Moses who asked me, 'What has Allah enjoined on your followers?' I replied, 'He has enjoined fifty prayers on them.' Moses said, 'Go back to your Lord (and appeal for reduction) for your followers will not be able to bear it.' (So I went back to Allah and requested for reduction) and He reduced it to half. When I passed by Moses again and informed him about it, he said, 'Go back to your Lord as your followers will not be able to bear it.' So I returned to Allah and requested for further reduction and half of it was reduced. I again passed by Moses and he said to me: 'Return to your Lord, for your followers will not be able to bear it. So I returned to Allah and He said, 'These are five prayers and they are all (equal to) fifty (in reward) for My Word does not change.' I returned to Moses and he told me to go back once again. I replied, 'Now I feel shy of asking my Lord again.'"

"Then Gabriel took me till we '' reached Sidrat al-Muntahá (a lote tree of the utmost boundary) which was shrouded in colors, indescribable. Then I was admitted into Paradise where I found small (tents or) walls (made) of pearls and its earth was of musk."  

البخاري:٣٤٩حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ بُكَيْرٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا اللَّيْثُ عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ قَالَ كَانَ أَبُو ذَرٍّ يُحَدِّثُ

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ﷺ قَالَ: «فُرِجَ عَنْ سَقْفِ بَيْتِي وَأَنَا بِمَكَّةَ، فَنَزَلَ جِبْرِيلُ فَفَرَجَ صَدْرِي ثُمَّ غَسَلَهُ بِمَاءِ زَمْزَمَ، ثُمَّ جَاءَ بِطَسْتٍ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ مُمْتَلِئٍ حِكْمَةً وَإِيمَانًا فَأَفْرَغَهُ فِي صَدْرِي، ثُمَّ أَطْبَقَهُ، ثُمَّ أَخَذَ بِيَدِي فَعَرَجَ بِي إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا،»

«فَلَمَّا جِئْتُ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا قَالَ جِبْرِيلُ لِخَازِنِ السَّمَاءِ: افْتَحْ۔ قَالَ: مَنْ هَذَا؟ قَالَ: هَذَا جِبْرِيلُ۔ قَالَ: هَلْ مَعَكَ أَحَدٌ؟ قَالَ: نَعَمْ مَعِي مُحَمَّدٌ ﷺ۔ فَقَالَ: أُرْسِلَ إِلَيْهِ؟ قَالَ: نَعَمْ۔ فَلَمَّا فَتَحَ عَلَوْنَا السَّمَاءَ الدُّنْيَا، فَإِذَا رَجُلٌ قَاعِدٌ عَلَى يَمِينِهِ أَسْوِدَةٌ وَعَلَى يَسَارِهِ أَسْوِدَةٌ، إِذَا نَظَرَ قِبَلَ يَمِينِهِ ضَحِكَ وَإِذَا نَظَرَ قِبَلَ يَسَارِهِ بَكَى۔ فَقَالَ: مَرْحَبًا بِالنَّبِيِّ الصَّالِحِ وَالاِبْنِ الصَّالِحِ! قُلْتُ لِجِبْرِيلَ: مَنْ هَذَا؟ قَالَ: هَذَا آدَمُ وَهَذِهِ الأَسْوِدَةُ عَنْ يَمِينِهِ وَشِمَالِهِ نَسَمُ بَنِيهِ، فَأَهْلُ الْيَمِينِ مِنْهُمْ أَهْلُ الْجَنَّةِ وَالأَسْوِدَةُ الَّتِي عَنْ شِمَالِهِ أَهْلُ النَّارِ، فَإِذَا نَظَرَ عَنْ يَمِينِهِ ضَحِكَ وَإِذَا نَظَرَ قِبَلَ شِمَالِهِ بَكَى۔»

«حَتَّى عَرَجَ بِي إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الثَّانِيَةِ فَقَالَ لِخَازِنِهَا: افْتَحْ۔ فَقَالَ لَهُ خَازِنُهَا مِثْلَ مَا قَالَ الأَوَّلُ، فَفَتَحَ۔» قَالَ أَنَسٌ: فَذَكَرَ أَنَّهُ وَجَدَ فِي السَّمَوَاتِ آدَمَ وَإِدْرِيسَ وَمُوسَى وَعِيسَى وَإِبْرَاهِيمَ صَلَوَاتُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِمْ، وَلَمْ يُثْبِتْ كَيْفَ مَنَازِلُهُمْ غَيْرَ أَنَّهُ ذَكَرَ أَنَّهُ وَجَدَ آدَمَ فِي السَّمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا، وَإِبْرَاهِيمَ فِي السَّمَاءِ السَّادِسَةِ۔

قَالَ أَنَسٌ: فَلَمَّا مَرَّ جِبْرِيلُ بِالنَّبِيِّ ﷺ بِإِدْرِيسَ، قَالَ: «مَرْحَبًا بِالنَّبِيِّ الصَّالِحِ وَالأَخِ الصَّالِحِ! فَقُلْتُ: مَنْ هَذَا؟ قَالَ: هَذَا إِدْرِيسُ۔»

«ثُمَّ مَرَرْتُ بِمُوسَى، فَقَالَ: مَرْحَبًا بِالنَّبِيِّ الصَّالِحِ وَالأَخِ الصَّالِحِ! قُلْتُ: مَنْ هَذَا؟ قَالَ: هَذَا مُوسَى۔»

«ثُمَّ مَرَرْتُ بِعِيسَى، فَقَالَ: مَرْحَبًا بِالأَخِ الصَّالِحِ وَالنَّبِيِّ الصَّالِحِ! قُلْتُ: مَنْ هَذَا؟ قَالَ: هَذَا عِيسَى۔»

«ثُمَّ مَرَرْتُ بِإِبْرَاهِيمَ، فَقَالَ: مَرْحَبًا بِالنَّبِيِّ الصَّالِحِ وَالاِبْنِ الصَّالِحِ! قُلْتُ: مَنْ هَذَا؟ قَالَ: هَذَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ ﷺ۔»

قَالَ ابْنُ شِهَابٍ فَأَخْبَرَنِي ابْنُ حَزْمٍ أَنَّ ابْنَ عَبَّاسٍ وَأَبَا حَبَّةَ الأَنْصَارِيَّ كَانَا يَقُولاَنِ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ ﷺ: «ثُمَّ عُرِجَ بِي، حَتَّى ظَهَرْتُ لِمُسْتَوًى أَسْمَعُ فِيهِ صَرِيفَ الأَقْلاَمِ۔»

قَالَ ابْنُ حَزْمٍ وَأَنَسُ بْنُ مَالِكٍ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ ﷺ: «فَفَرَضَ اللَّهُ عَلَى أُمَّتِي خَمْسِينَ صَلاَةً، فَرَجَعْتُ بِذَلِكَ حَتَّى مَرَرْتُ عَلَى مُوسَى، فَقَالَ: مَا فَرَضَ اللَّهُ لَكَ عَلَى أُمَّتِكَ؟ قُلْتُ: فَرَضَ خَمْسِينَ صَلاَةً۔ قَالَ: فَارْجِعْ إِلَى رَبِّكَ فَإِنَّ أُمَّتَكَ لاَ تُطِيقُ ذَلِكَ۔ فَرَاجَعْتُ فَوَضَعَ شَطْرَهَا۔ فَرَجَعْتُ إِلَى مُوسَى قُلْتُ: وَضَعَ شَطْرَهَا۔ فَقَالَ: رَاجِعْ رَبَّكَ فَإِنَّ أُمَّتَكَ لاَ تُطِيقُ۔ فَرَاجَعْتُ فَوَضَعَ شَطْرَهَا۔ فَرَجَعْتُ إِلَيْهِ فَقَالَ: ارْجِعْ إِلَى رَبِّكَ فَإِنَّ أُمَّتَكَ لاَ تُطِيقُ ذَلِكَ۔ فَرَاجَعْتُهُ فَقَالَ: هِيَ خَمْسٌ وَهْىَ خَمْسُونَ، لاَ يُبَدَّلُ الْقَوْلُ لَدَىَّ۔ فَرَجَعْتُ إِلَى مُوسَى فَقَالَ: رَاجِعْ رَبَّكَ۔ فَقُلْتُ اسْتَحْيَيْتُ مِنْ رَبِّي۔»

«ثُمَّ انْطَلَقَ بِي حَتَّى انْتَهَى بِي إِلَى سِدْرَةِ الْمُنْتَهَى، وَغَشِيَهَا أَلْوَانٌ لاَ أَدْرِي مَا هِيَ، ثُمَّ أُدْخِلْتُ الْجَنَّةَ فَإِذَا فِيهَا حَبَايِلُ اللُّؤْلُؤِ وَإِذَا تُرَابُهَا الْمِسْكُ۔»  

Buying and selling in the masjid is disliked

tirmidhi:1321al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī al-Khalāal > ʿĀrim > ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Muḥammad > Yazīd b. Khuṣayfah > Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥman b. Thawbān > Abū Hurayrah

That the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: "When you see someone selling or buying in the Masjid then say: 'May Allah not profit your business.' And when you see someone announcing about something lost then say: 'May Allah not return it to you.'"  

The Hadith of Abu Hurairah is Hasan Gharib. This is acted upon according to some of the people of knowledge. They dislike selling and buying in the Masjid. This is the view of Ahmad and Ishaq. Some of the people of knowledge permitted selling and buying in the Masjid.
الترمذي:١٣٢١حَدَّثَنَا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ الْخَلاَّلُ حَدَّثَنَا عَارِمٌ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْعَزِيزِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ أَخْبَرَنَا يَزِيدُ بْنُ خُصَيْفَةَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ ثَوْبَانَ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ﷺ قَالَ إِذَا رَأَيْتُمْ مَنْ يَبِيعُ أَوْ يَبْتَاعُ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ فَقُولُوا لاَ أَرْبَحَ اللَّهُ تِجَارَتَكَ وَإِذَا رَأَيْتُمْ مَنْ يَنْشُدُ فِيهِ ضَالَّةً فَقُولُوا لاَ رَدَّ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ  

قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى حَدِيثُ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ وَالْعَمَلُ عَلَى هَذَا عِنْدَ بَعْضِ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ كَرِهُوا الْبَيْعَ وَالشِّرَاءَ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ وَهُوَ قَوْلُ أَحْمَدَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَقَدْ رَخَّصَ بَعْضُ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ فِي الْبَيْعِ وَالشِّرَاءِ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ

Do not spit out food in your mouth upon hearing the adhan of Fajr

abudawud:2350ʿAbd al-Aʿlá b. Ḥammād > Ḥammād > Muḥammad b. ʿAmr > Abū Salamah > Abū Hurayrah

The Prophet ﷺ said: When any of you hears the summons to prayer while he has a vessel in his hand, he should not lay it down till he fulfils his need.  

أبو داود:٢٣٥٠حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الأَعْلَى بْنُ حَمَّادٍ حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ إِذَا سَمِعَ أَحَدُكُمُ النِّدَاءَ وَالإِنَاءُ عَلَى يَدِهِ فَلاَ يَضَعْهُ حَتَّى يَقْضِيَ حَاجَتَهُ مِنْهُ  

The duʿāʾ of Prophet Daniel that saved him from the lions

suyuti:4-1061bʿAli

Bukhtanassar (Nebuchadnezzer) brought Prophet Dāniyāl (Daniel, peace be upon him) and ordered him to be imprisoned and cast into a den with two lions. He was left there for five days, after which the den was opened. To his astonishment, Daniel was found praying, and the two lions had not harmed him. Bukhtanassar asked him, "Tell me, what did you say? How were you saved?"

˹Dāniyāl˺ replied, "I said, 'Praise be to Allah, who does not forget those who remember Him. Praise be to Allah, who does not disappoint those who have hope in Him. Praise be to Allah, the One to whom those who place their trust never turn in vain. Praise be to Allah, who is our refuge when all other means fail. Praise be to Allah, our hope when our deeds disappoint us. Praise be to Allah, who relieves our distress in times of difficulty. Praise be to Allah, who rewards excellence with excellence. Praise be to Allah, who rewards patience with salvation.'"  

Ibn Abū al-Dunyā's Shukr and its chain is Ḥasan
السيوطي:٤-١٠٦١bعَنْ عَلِىٍّ قَالَ

أُتِىَ بُخْتُنصرُ بِدَانْيَالَ النَّبِيّ - عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَمُ - فَأَمرَ بِه فَحُبِسَ وَضَرَّىَ أَسَدَيْنِ فَأَلْقَاهُمَا فِى جُبٍّ مَعَهُ وَطَيَّنَ عَلَيْهِ وَعَلى الأَسَدَيْنِ خَمْسَةَ أَيَّامٍ، ثُمَّ فَتَحَ عَلَيْهِ بَعْدَ خَمْسَةِ أَيَّامٍ فَوَجَدَ دَانْيَالَ يُصَلِّى، وَالأَسَدَانِ فِى نَاحيَةِ الْجُبِّ لَمْ يَعْرِضَا لَهُ، قَالَ بُخْتنَصرُ: أَخْبِرْنِى مَاذَا قُلتَ؟ فَدَفَعَ عَنْكَ؟ قَالَ: قُلْتُ: الْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِى لاَ يَنْسَى مَنْ ذَكَرَهُ، الْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِى لاَ يَخَيِّبُ مَنْ رَجَاهُ، الْحَمْدُ لله الَّذى لاَ يَكِلُ مَنْ تَوَكَّلَ عَلَيْهِ إِلَى غيرِهِ، الْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِى هُوَ ثقَتُنَا حِينَ تَنْقطِعُ عَنَّا الْحيَلُ، الْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذى هُوَ رَجَاؤُنا يَوْمَ تَسُوءُ ظُنُونُنَا بِأَعْمَالِنَا، الْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِى يَكْشِفُ ضُرَّنَا عِنْدَ كَرْبِنَا، الْحَمدُ للهِ الَّذِى يَجْزِى بِالإِحْسَانِ إِحْسَانًا، الْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِى يَجْزِى بِالصَّبْرِ نَجَاةً  

ابن أبى الدنيا في الشكر وسنده حسن

Hadith Jibril on Imān, Islam, and Ihsan

muslim:8a[Chain 1] Abū Khaythamah Zuhayr b. Ḥarb > Wakīʿ > Kahmas > ʿAbdullāh b. Buraydah > Yaḥyá b. Yaʿmar [Chain 2] ʿUbaydullāh b. Muʿādh al-ʿAnbarī And Hadhā Ḥadīthuh from my father > Kahmas > Ibn Buraydah > Yaḥyá b. Yaʿmar

the first man who discussed Qadar (Divine Decree) in Baṣrah was Maʿbad al-Juhanī. I along with Ḥumayd b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Ḥimyarī set out for pilgrimage or for ʿUmrah and said: Should it so happen that we come into contact with one of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, we shall ask him about what is talked about Qadar. Accidentally we came across ʿAbdullāh b. ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb, while he was entering the mosque. My companion and I surrounded him. One of us ˹stood˺ on his right and the other stood on his left. I expected that my companion would authorize me to speak. I, therefore, said: Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, there have appeared some people in our land who recite the Quran and pursue knowledge. And then after talking about their affairs, added: They claim that there is no such thing as Qadar and events are not predestined. He said: When you happen to meet such people tell them that I have nothing to do with them and they have nothing to do with me. And verily they are in no way responsible for my ˹belief˺. ʿAbdullāh b ʿUmar swore by Allah: If any one of them had with him gold equal to the bulk of ˹the mountain˺ Uḥud and spent it ˹for the sake of Allah˺, Allah would not accept it unless he affirmed his faith in the Qadar.

He further said: My father, ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb, told me: One day we were sitting in the company of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ when there appeared before us a man dressed in pure white clothes. His hair was extraordinarily black. There were no signs of travel on him. None amongst us recognized him. At last, he sat with the Prophet ﷺ. He knelt before him placed his palms on his thighs,

then said: Muhammad, inform me about Islam. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: Islam implies that: (1) you testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and (2) you establish prayer, (3) pay Zakat, (4) observe the fast of Ramadan, and (5) perform pilgrimage to the (House) if you are solvent enough ˹to bear the expense of˺ the journey. ˹The inquirer˺ said: You have told the truth. ˹ʿUmar˺ said: It amazed us that he would put the question and then he would himself verify the truth.

˹The inquirer˺ said: Inform me about Iman (faith). He replied: That (1) you affirm your faith in Allah, (2) in His angels, (3) in His Books, (4) in His Apostles, (5) in the Day of Judgment, and (6) you affirm your faith in the Divine Decree about good and evil. ˹The inquirer˺ said: You have told the truth.

˹The inquirer˺ again said: Inform me about Iḥsān (excellence in deeds). He said: That (1) you worship Allah as if you are seeing Him, (2) for though you don't see Him, He, verily, sees you.

˹The inquirer˺ again said: Inform me about the Hour (of the Last Day). He remarked: One who is asked knows no more than the one who is inquiring. ˹The inquirer˺ said: Tell me some of its indications. He said: That (1) the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress and master, that (2) you will find barefooted, destitute goat herders vying with one another in the construction of magnificent buildings.

˹ʿUmar˺ said: Then ˹the inquirer˺ went on his way but I stayed with (the Prophet) for a long while. He then, said to me: "ʿUmar, do you know who this inquirer was?" I replied: Allah and His Messenger know best. He remarked: "He was Jibrīl (Angel Gabriel). He came to you in order to teach you in your religion."  

مسلم:٨aحَدَّثَنِي أَبُو خَيْثَمَةَ زُهَيْرُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ عَنْ كَهْمَسٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ بُرَيْدَةَ عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ يَعْمَرَ ح وَحَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُعَاذٍ الْعَنْبَرِيُّ وَهَذَا حَدِيثُهُ حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي حَدَّثَنَا كَهْمَسٌ عَنِ ابْنِ بُرَيْدَةَ عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ يَعْمَرَ قَالَ

كَانَ أَوَّلَ مَنْ قَالَ فِي الْقَدَرِ بِالْبَصْرَةِ مَعْبَدٌ الْجُهَنِيُّ۔ فَانْطَلَقْتُ أَنَا وَحُمَيْدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الْحِمْيَرِيُّ حَاجَّيْنِ أَوْ مُعْتَمِرَيْنِ، فَقُلْنَا لَوْ لَقِينَا أَحَدًا مِنْ أَصْحَابِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ﷺ فَسَأَلْنَاهُ عَمَّا يَقُولُ هَؤُلاَءِ فِي الْقَدَرِ۔ فَوُفِّقَ لَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ دَاخِلاً الْمَسْجِدَ فَاكْتَنَفْتُهُ أَنَا وَصَاحِبِي أَحَدُنَا عَنْ يَمِينِهِ وَالآخَرُ عَنْ شِمَالِهِ۔ فَظَنَنْتُ أَنَّ صَاحِبِي سَيَكِلُ الْكَلاَمَ إِلَىَّ۔ فَقُلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ: إِنَّهُ قَدْ ظَهَرَ قِبَلَنَا نَاسٌ يَقْرَءُونَ الْقُرْآنَ وَيَتَقَفَّرُونَ الْعِلْمَ وَذَكَرَ مِنْ شَأْنِهِمْ وَأَنَّهُمْ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنْ لاَ قَدَرَ، وَأَنَّ الأَمْرَ أُنُفٌ۔ قَالَ: فَإِذَا لَقِيتَ أُولَئِكَ فَأَخْبِرْهُمْ أَنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِنْهُمْ وَأَنَّهُمْ بُرَآءُ مِنِّي، وَالَّذِي يَحْلِفُ بِهِ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عُمَرَ لَوْ أَنَّ لأَحَدِهِمْ مِثْلَ أُحُدٍ ذَهَبًا فَأَنْفَقَهُ، مَا قَبِلَ اللَّهُ مِنْهُ حَتَّى يُؤْمِنَ بِالْقَدَرِ۔

ثُمَّ قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ قَالَ: بَيْنَمَا نَحْنُ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ﷺ ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ إِذْ طَلَعَ عَلَيْنَا رَجُلٌ شَدِيدُ بَيَاضِ الثِّيَابِ، شَدِيدُ سَوَادِ الشَّعَرِ۔ لاَ يُرَى عَلَيْهِ أَثَرُ السَّفَرِ وَلاَ يَعْرِفُهُ مِنَّا أَحَدٌ۔ حَتَّى جَلَسَ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ ﷺ فَأَسْنَدَ رُكْبَتَيْهِ إِلَى رُكْبَتَيْهِ، وَوَضَعَ كَفَّيْهِ عَلَى فَخِذَيْهِ۔

وَقَالَ: يَا مُحَمَّدُ، أَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الإِسْلاَمِ۔ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ: «الإِسْلاَمُ (١) أَنْ تَشْهَدَ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ، (٢) وَتُقِيمَ الصَّلاَةَ، (٣) وَتُؤْتِيَ الزَّكَاةَ، (٤) وَتَصُومَ رَمَضَانَ، (٥) وَتَحُجَّ الْبَيْتَ إِنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلاً۔» قَالَ: صَدَقْتَ۔ قَالَ: فَعَجِبْنَا لَهُ يَسْأَلُهُ وَيُصَدِّقُهُ!

قَالَ: فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الإِيمَانِ۔ قَالَ: «أَنْ (١) تُؤْمِنَ بِاللَّهِ، (٢) وَمَلاَئِكَتِهِ، (٣) وَكُتُبِهِ، (٤) وَرُسُلِهِ، (٥) وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ، (٦) وَتُؤْمِنَ بِالْقَدَرِ خَيْرِهِ وَشَرِّهِ۔» قَالَ: صَدَقْتَ۔

قَالَ: فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الإِحْسَانِ۔ قَالَ: «أَنْ (١) تَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ كَأَنَّكَ تَرَاهُ، (٢) فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ تَرَاهُ فَإِنَّهُ يَرَاكَ۔»

قَالَ: فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ السَّاعَةِ۔ قَالَ: «مَا الْمَسْئُولُ عَنْهَا بِأَعْلَمَ مِنَ السَّائِلِ۔» قَالَ: فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ أَمَارَتِهَا۔ قَالَ: «أَنْ تَلِدَ الأَمَةُ رَبَّتَهَا، وَأَنْ تَرَى الْحُفَاةَ الْعُرَاةَ الْعَالَةَ رِعَاءَ الشَّاءِ يَتَطَاوَلُونَ فِي الْبُنْيَانِ۔»

قَالَ: ثُمَّ انْطَلَقَ فَلَبِثْتُ مَلِيًّا ثُمَّ قَالَ لِي: «يَا عُمَرُ أَتَدْرِي مَنِ السَّائِلُ؟» قُلْتُ: اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَعْلَمُ۔ قَالَ: «فَإِنَّهُ جِبْرِيلُ أَتَاكُمْ يُعَلِّمُكُمْ دِينَكُمْ۔»  

Hadith Jibril on Iman, Islam, and Ihsan: The foundational hadith of Islam

bukhari:50Musaddad > Ismāʿīl b. Ibrāhīm > Abū Ḥayyān al-Taymī > Abū Zurʿah > Abū Hurayrah

one day while the Prophet ﷺ was sitting in the company of some people, and ˹the angel˺ Gabriel came to him and said: What is Īmān (Faith)? The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, 'Faith is to (1) believe in Allah, (2) His angels, (3) meeting with Him, (4) His Messengers, and (5) to believe in Resurrection."

He (Gabriel) said: What is Islām? The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, "To (1) worship Allah and not to ascribe any partners to Him, (2) to establish Ṣalāh (Prayer), (3) to pay the compulsory charity (Zakāh), and (4) to fast during the month of Ramaḍān."

He (Gabriel) said: "What is Iḥsān (Excellence in Faith)?" The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, "To (1) worship Allah as if you see Him, and if you are unable to see Him (i.e. achieve such as state) (2) ˹know˺ that He is watching you."

He (Gabriel) said: When is the Hour (the Last Day)? The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, "The answerer has no better knowledge than the questioner. But I will inform you about its signs. (1) When a servant woman gives birth to her master, and (2) when the shepherds of black camels start boasting and competing with others in the construction of taller buildings, (3) ˹and it (the Hour) is one of five ˹things˺ which nobody knows except Allah." The Prophet ﷺ then recited: "Verily, with Allah (alone) is the knowledge of the Hour... (Luqmān 31:34)"

Then he (Gabriel) left and the Prophet ﷺ ˹asked his companions˺ to call him back, but they could not see him. Then the Prophet ﷺ said, "That was Gabriel who came to teach the people their religion."  

Abū ʿAbdullāh said: that way he made it all ˹parts of˺ Īmān (Faith).
البخاري:٥٠حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ قَالَ؛ حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ؛ أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو حَيَّانَ التَّيْمِيُّ؛ عَنْ أَبِي زُرْعَةَ؛ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ

كَانَ النَّبِيُّ ﷺ بَارِزًا يَوْمًا لِلنَّاسِ فَأَتَاهُ جِبْرِيلُ، فَقَالَ: مَا الإِيمَانُ؟ قَالَ: «الإِيمَانُ أَنْ (١) تُؤْمِنَ بِاللَّهِ، (٢) وَمَلاَئِكَتِهِ، (٣) وَبِلِقَائِهِ، (٤) وَرُسُلِهِ، (٥) وَتُؤْمِنَ بِالْبَعْثِ۔»

قَالَ: مَا الإِسْلاَمُ؟ قَالَ: «الإِسْلاَمُ أَنْ (١) تَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ وَلاَ تُشْرِكَ بِهِ، (٢) وَتُقِيمَ الصَّلاَةَ، (٣) وَتُؤَدِّيَ الزَّكَاةَ الْمَفْرُوضَةَ، (٤) وَتَصُومَ رَمَضَانَ۔»

قَالَ: مَا الإِحْسَانُ؟ قَالَ: أَنْ (١) تَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ كَأَنَّكَ تَرَاهُ، فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ تَرَاهُ (٢) فَإِنَّهُ يَرَاكَ۔»

قَالَ: مَتَى السَّاعَةُ؟ قَالَ: «مَا الْمَسْئُولُ عَنْهَا بِأَعْلَمَ مِنَ السَّائِلِ۔ وَسَأُخْبِرُكَ عَنْ أَشْرَاطِهَا: (١) إِذَا وَلَدَتِ الأَمَةُ رَبَّهَا، (٢) وَإِذَا تَطَاوَلَ رُعَاةُ الإِبِلِ الْبُهْمُ فِي الْبُنْيَانِ، (٣) فِي خَمْسٍ لاَ يَعْلَمُهُنَّ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ۔» ثُمَّ تَلاَ النَّبِيُّ ﷺ: {إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِنْدَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ} الآيَةَ

ثُمَّ أَدْبَرَ فَقَالَ رُدُّوهُ فَلَمْ يَرَوْا شَيْئًا فَقَالَ: «هَذَا جِبْرِيلُ جَاءَ يُعَلِّمُ النَّاسَ دِينَهُمْ۔»  

قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ جَعَلَ ذَلِكَ كُلَّهُ مِنَ الإِيمَانِ

Prohibition to eat on the day of doubt (whether the crescent moon could be sighted)

tirmidhi:686Abū Saʿīd ʿAbdullāh b. Saʿīd al-Ashaj > Abū Khālid al-Aḥmar > ʿAmr b. Qays al-Mulāʾī > Abū Isḥāq > Ṣilah b. Zufar

We were with Ammar b. Yasir when a roasted sheep was brought and he said: "Eat." Someone among the people said: "I am fasting." So Ammar said: "Whoever fasts on a day in which there is doubt, then he has disobeyed Abu al-Qasim ﷺ."  

الترمذي:٦٨٦حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو سَعِيدٍ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ الأَشَجُّ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو خَالِدٍ الأَحْمَرُ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ قَيْسٍ الْمُلاَئِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ عَنْ صِلَةَ بْنِ زُفَرَ قَالَ

كُنَّا عِنْدَ عَمَّارِ بْنِ يَاسِرٍ فَأُتِيَ بِشَاةٍ مَصْلِيَّةٍ فَقَالَ كُلُوا فَتَنَحَّى بَعْضُ الْقَوْمِ فَقَالَ إِنِّي صَائِمٌ فَقَالَ عَمَّارٌ مَنْ صَامَ الْيَوْمَ الَّذِي يَشُكُّ فِيهِ النَّاسُ فَقَدْ عَصَى أَبَا الْقَاسِمِ ﷺ  

قَالَ وَفِي الْبَابِ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ وَأَنَسٍ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى حَدِيثُ عَمَّارٍ حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ وَالْعَمَلُ عَلَى هَذَا عِنْدَ أَكْثَرِ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ ﷺ وَمَنْ بَعْدَهُمْ مِنَ التَّابِعِينَ وَبِهِ يَقُولُ سُفْيَانُ الثَّوْرِيُّ وَمَالِكُ بْنُ أَنَسٍ وَعَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الْمُبَارَكِ وَالشَّافِعِيُّ وَأَحْمَدُ وَإِسْحَاقُ كَرِهُوا أَنْ يَصُومَ الرَّجُلُ الْيَوْمَ الَّذِي يُشَكُّ فِيهِ وَرَأَى أَكْثَرُهُمْ إِنْ صَامَهُ فَكَانَ مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ أَنْ يَقْضِيَ يَوْمًا مَكَانَهُ

Dua for ease and facilitation

ذِكْرُ مَا يُسْتَحَبُّ لِلْمَرْءِ سُؤَالُ الْبَارِي جَلَّ وَعَلَا تَسْهِيلَ الْأُمُورِ عَلَيْهِ إِذَا صَعُبَتْ

ibnhibban:974Muḥammad b. al-Musayyab b. Isḥāq > Muḥammad b. ʿAbdullāh b. ʿUbayd b. ʿAqīl > Sahl b. Ḥammād > Ḥammād b. Salamah > Thābit > Anas

The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said:

“allāhumma lā sahlan illā mā jaʿaltahū sahlan, wa-anta tajʿal al-ḥazna sahlan idhā shiʾta

(O Allah, there is no ease except what You make easy, and You make the difficult easy if You Will.)”  

ابن حبّان:٩٧٤أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْمُسَيَّبِ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُبَيْدِ بْنِ عَقِيلٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا سَهْلُ بْنُ حَمَّادٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادُ بْنُ سَلَمَةَ عَنْ ثَابِتٍ عَنْ أَنَسٍ

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ﷺ قَالَ:

«اللَّهُمَّ لَا سَهْلَ إِلَّا مَا جَعَلْتَهُ سَهْلًا وَأَنْتَ تَجْعَلُ الْحَزْنَ سَهْلًا إِذَا شِئْتَ»  

The Prophet’s ﷺ advice to Abu Hurayrah

bukhari:1178Muslim b. Ibrāhīm > Shuʿbah > ʿAbbās al-Jurayrī > Ibn Farrūkh > Abū ʿUthmān al-Nahdī > Abū Hurayrah

My friend (the Prophet ﷺ) advised me to do three things and I shall not leave them till I die: (1) to fast three days every month, (2) to offer the Duha prayer, and (3) to offer Witr before sleeping.  

البخاري:١١٧٨حَدَّثَنَا مُسْلِمُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ أَخْبَرَنَا شُعْبَةُ حَدَّثَنَا عَبَّاسٌ الْجُرَيْرِيُّ هُوَ ابْنُ فَرُّوخَ عَنْ أَبِي عُثْمَانَ النَّهْدِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ؓ قَالَ

أَوْصَانِي خَلِيلِي بِثَلاَثٍ لاَ أَدَعُهُنَّ حَتَّى أَمُوتَ: (١) صَوْمِ ثَلاَثَةِ أَيَّامٍ مِنْ كُلِّ شَهْرٍ، (٢) وَصَلاَةِ الضُّحَى، (٣) وَنَوْمٍ عَلَى وِتْرٍ.  

The Prophet’s ﷺ advice to Abu Hurayrah

bukhari:1981Abū Maʿmar > ʿAbd al-Wārith > Abū al-Tayyāḥ > Abū ʿUthmān > Abū Hurayrah

My friend (the Prophet ﷺ ) advised me to observe three things: (1) to fast three days a month; (2) to pray two rakʿat of Duha prayer (forenoon prayer); and (3) to pray witr before sleeping.  

البخاري:١٩٨١حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مَعْمَرٍ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْوَارِثِ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو التَّيَّاحِ قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو عُثْمَانَ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ؓ قَالَ

أَوْصَانِي خَلِيلِي ﷺ بِثَلاَثٍ صِيَامِ ثَلاَثَةِ أَيَّامٍ مِنْ كُلِّ شَهْرٍ وَرَكْعَتَىِ الضُّحَى وَأَنْ أُوتِرَ قَبْلَ أَنْ أَنَامَ  

Dua of istikharah (دعاء الاستخارة) to be done before making notable choices

bukhari:1166Qutaybah > ʿAbd al-Raḥman b. Abū al-Mawālī > Muḥammad b. al-Munkadir > Jābir b. ʿAbdullāh

The Messenger of Allah ﷺ used to teach us the way of doing istikhārah (seeking Allah's help while making a choice), in all matters as he taught us the Surahs of the Quran. He said, "If anyone of you is concerned regarding a matter, he should offer a two-rakʿah Ṣalāh outside of the obligatory ones and should say:

allāhumma inni astakhīruka bi-ʿilmika, wa-astaqdiruka bi-qudratika, wa-asʾaluka min fadlik al-ʿaẓīm, fa-innaka taqdiru wala aqdiru, wa-taʿlamu wa-la aʿlamu, wa anta ʿallām al-ghuyūb.

allāhumma in kunta taʿlamu anna {hādhā al-amra} khayrun lī fī dīni wa-maʿāshī wa-ʿāqibati amrī," or said, "fi ʿājili amrī wa-ājilihī, fa-uqdurhu lī wa-yassirhu lī, thumma bārik lī fīh; wa-in kunta taʿlamu anna {hādhā al-amra} sharrun lī fī dīni wa-maʿāshī wa-ʿāqibati amrī," or said, "fī ʿājili amri wa-ʿājilihī fa-iṣrifhu ʿannī wa-iṣrifnī ʿanhu, wa-uqdur līya al-khayra ḥaythu kāna, thumma arḍini bi-hī.

(O Allah! I seek ˹Your help˺ in making a choice through Your knowledge and seek the ability ˹to do so˺ through Your Power, and I ask You for Your Great Blessings. For You are capable and I am not. You know ˹better˺, and I do not, and You know the ˹matters of the˺ unseen."

O Allah! If You know that {such a matter} is good for me, my religion, my livelihood, and my Hereafter..." or he said, "for my short-term ˹goals˺ as well as my long-term ˹goals˺, then ordain it for me and make its ˹path˺ easy for me and then bestow Your blessings upon it. If You know that {such a matter} is bad for me, my religion, my livelihood, and for my Hereafter..." or he said, "for my short-term ˹goals˺ as well as my long-term ˹goals˺, then remove it from ˹my path,˺ and remove me from ˹its path˺ and ˹instead˺ ordain for me good, whatever it may be, and let me be content with it.)"

He said: he should name his need (in place of what is mentioned in brackets).  

البخاري:١١٦٦حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ أَبِي الْمَوَالِي عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْمُنْكَدِرِ عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ؓ قَالَ

كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ يُعَلِّمُنَا الاِسْتِخَارَةَ فِي الأُمُورِ كَمَا يُعَلِّمُنَا السُّورَةَ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ يَقُولُ: «إِذَا هَمَّ أَحَدُكُمْ بِالأَمْرِ فَلْيَرْكَعْ رَكْعَتَيْنِ مِنْ غَيْرِ الْفَرِيضَةِ ثُمَّ لِيَقُلِ:»

«اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْتَخِيرُكَ بِعِلْمِكَ، وَأَسْتَقْدِرُكَ بِقُدْرَتِكَ، وَأَسْأَلُكَ مِنْ فَضْلِكَ الْعَظِيمِ۔ فَإِنَّكَ تَقْدِرُ وَلاَ أَقْدِرُ، وَتَعْلَمُ وَلاَ أَعْلَمُ، وَأَنْتَ عَلاَّمُ الْغُيُوبِ۔»

«اللَّهُمَّ إِنْ كُنْتَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّ {هَذَا الأَمْرَ} خَيْرٌ لِي فِي دِينِي وَمَعَاشِي وَعَاقِبَةِ أَمْرِي» أَوْ قَالَ «عَاجِلِ أَمْرِي وَآجِلِهِ، فَاقْدُرْهُ لِي وَيَسِّرْهُ لِي، ثُمَّ بَارِكْ لِي فِيهِ۔ وَإِنْ كُنْتَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّ {هَذَا الأَمْرَ} شَرٌّ لِي فِي دِينِي وَمَعَاشِي وَعَاقِبَةِ أَمْرِي» أَوْ قَالَ «فِي عَاجِلِ أَمْرِي وَآجِلِهِ، فَاصْرِفْهُ عَنِّي وَاصْرِفْنِي عَنْهُ، وَاقْدُرْ لِي الْخَيْرَ حَيْثُ كَانَ ثُمَّ أَرْضِنِي بِهِ۔»

قَالَ: وَيُسَمِّي حَاجَتَهُ.  

Dua of istikharah

bukhari:6382Muṭarrif b. ʿAbdullāh Abū Muṣʿab > ʿAbd al-Raḥman b. Abū al-Mawāl > Muḥammad b. al-Munkadir > Jābir

The Prophet ﷺ used to teach us the Istikhara for each and every matter as he used to teach us the Suras from the Holy Quran, he would say, "If anyone of you intends to do something, he should offer a two-rakah prayer other than the obligatory prayer, and then say:

allāhumma inni astakhīruka bi-ʿilmika, wa-astaqdiruka bi-qudratika, wa-asʾaluka min fadlik al-ʿaẓīm, fa-innaka taqdiru wala aqdiru, wa-taʿlamu wa-la aʿlamu, wa anta ʿallām al-ghuyūb; allāhumma in kunta taʿlamu anna {hādhā al-amra} khayrun lī fī dīni wa-maʿāshī wa-ʿāqibati amrī," or said, "fi ʿājili amrī wa-ājilihī, fa-uqdurhu lī, wa-in kunta taʿlamu anna {hādhā al-amra} sharrun lī fī dīni wa-maʿāshī wa-ʿāqibati amrī," or said, "fī ʿājili amri wa-ʿājilihī fa-iṣrifhu ʿannī wa-iṣrifnī ʿanhu wa-uqdur līya al-khayra ḥaythu kāna, thumma raḍḍini bi-hī."

(O Allah! I seek ˹Your help˺ in making a choice through Your knowledge, and seek the ability ˹to do so˺ through Your Power, and I ask You for Your Great Blessings. For You are capable and I am not. You know ˹better˺, and I do not, and You know the ˹matters of the˺ unseen. O Allah! If You know that {such a matter} is good for me, my religion, my livelihood, and my Hereafter..." or he said, "for my short-term ˹goals˺ as well as the long-term ˹goals˺, then ordain it for me and make its ˹path˺ easy for me and then bestow Your blessings upon it. If You know that {such a matter} is bad for me, my religion, my livelihood, and for my Hereafter..." or he said, "for my short-term ˹goals˺ as well as my long-term ˹goals˺, then remove it from ˹my path,˺ and remove me from ˹its path˺ and ˹instead˺ ordain for me good, whatever it may be, and let me be content with it."

He said: he should name his need (in place of what is mentioned in brackets).  

البخاري:٦٣٨٢حَدَّثَنَا مُطَرِّفُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ أَبُو مُصْعَبٍ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ أَبِي الْمَوَالِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْمُنْكَدِرِ عَنْ جَابِرٍ ؓ قَالَ

كَانَ النَّبِيُّ ﷺ يُعَلِّمُنَا الاِسْتِخَارَةَ فِي الأُمُورِ كُلِّهَا كَالسُّورَةِ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ إِذَا هَمَّ بِالأَمْرِ فَلْيَرْكَعْ رَكْعَتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يَقُولُ:

«(اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْتَخِيرُكَ بِعِلْمِكَ، وَأَسْتَقْدِرُكَ بِقُدْرَتِكَ، وَأَسْأَلُكَ مِنْ فَضْلِكَ الْعَظِيمِ؛ فَإِنَّكَ تَقْدِرُ وَلاَ أَقْدِرُ، وَتَعْلَمُ وَلاَ أَعْلَمُ، وَأَنْتَ عَلاَّمُ الْغُيُوبِ؛ اللَّهُمَّ إِنْ كُنْتَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّ {هَذَا الأَمْرَ} خَيْرٌ لِي فِي دِينِي وَمَعَاشِي وَعَاقِبَةِ أَمْرِي،» أَوْ قَالَ «عَاجِلِ أَمْرِي وَآجِلِهِ، فَاقْدُرْهُ لِي؛ وَإِنْ كُنْتَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّ {هَذَا الأَمْرَ} شَرٌّ لِي فِي دِينِي وَمَعَاشِي وَعَاقِبَةِ أَمْرِي» أَوْ قَالَ «فِي عَاجِلِ أَمْرِي وَآجِلِهِ، فَاصْرِفْهُ عَنِّي وَاصْرِفْنِي عَنْهُ؛ وَاقْدُرْ لِيَ الْخَيْرَ حَيْثُ كَانَ، ثُمَّ رَضِّنِي بِهِ)

وَيُسَمِّي حَاجَتَهُ»  

Dua for hoping to witness and acceptance of fasting Ramadan

suyuti:390-20bʿUbādhah b. al-Ṣāmit

The Prophet ﷺ used to teach us these words when Ramadan came:

"O Allah! Preserve me until Ramadan, safeguard Ramadan for me, and accept it from me."  

السيوطي:٣٩٠-٢٠bعن عبادة بن الصَّامت قال:

"كان رسول الله ﷺ يعلمنا هؤلاء الكلمات إذا جاء رمضان:

«اللَّهُمَّ سَلِّمْنِي لِرَمَضَانَ وَسَلِّمْ رَمَضَانَ لِي وَتَسَلَّمْهُ مِنّي مُتَقَبَّلًا»  

[طب] الطبرانى في الكبير في الدعاء والديلمى، وسنده حسن

One who fasts a single day is distanced from Hellfires at a distance of seventy years

muslim:1153aMuḥammad b. Rumḥ b. al-Muhājir > al-Layth > Ibn al-Hād > Suhayl b. Abū Ṣāliḥ > al-Nuʿmān b. Abū ʿAyyāsh > Abū Saʿīd al-Khudrī

Every servant of Allah who observes fast for a day in the way of Allah, Allah would remove, because of this day, his face farther from the Fire (of Hell) to the extent of seventy years' distance.  

مسلم:١١٥٣aوَحَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ رُمْحِ بْنِ الْمُهَاجِرِ أَخْبَرَنِي اللَّيْثُ عَنِ ابْنِ الْهَادِ عَنْ سُهَيْلِ بْنِ أَبِي صَالِحٍ عَنِ النُّعْمَانِ بْنِ أَبِي عَيَّاشٍ عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ ؓ قَالَ

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ: «مَا مِنْ عَبْدٍ يَصُومُ يَوْمًا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ إِلاَّ بَاعَدَ اللَّهُ بِذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ وَجْهَهُ عَنِ النَّارِ سَبْعِينَ خَرِيفًا۔»  

Five deeds done on a Friday that guarantee Jannah

ذِكْرُ الْخِصَالِ الَّتِي إِذَا اسْتَعْمَلَهَا الْمَرْءُ فِي يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ، كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ

ibnhibban:2771Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan b. Qutaybah > Ḥarmalah b. Yaḥyá > Ibn Wahb > Ḥaywah b. Shurayḥ > Bashīr b. Abū ʿAmr al-Khawlānī > al-Walīd b. Qays al-Tujībī > Abū Saʿīd al-Khudrī

that He heard the Messenger of Allah ﷺ say, "There are five actions that if done in a day, Allah will write the person from the people of Paradise: (1) visiting a sick person, (2) attending a funeral, (3) fasting for a day, (3) going to Jumuah prayer, and (5) freeing a slave."  

ابن حبّان:٢٧٧١أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ قُتَيْبَةَ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا حَرْمَلَةُ بْنُ يَحْيَى قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ وَهْبٍ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي حَيْوَةُ بْنُ شُرَيْحٍ أَنَّ بَشِيرَ بْنَ أَبِي عَمْرٍو الْخَوْلَانِيَّ أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ الْوَلِيدَ بْنَ قَيْسٍ التُّجِيبِيَّ حَدَّثَهُ أَنَّ أَبَا سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيَّ حَدَّثَهُ

أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ﷺ يَقُولُ «خَمْسٌ مَنْ عَمِلَهُنَّ فِي يَوْمٍ كَتَبَهُ اللَّهُ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ مَنْ عَادَ مَرِيضًا وَشَهِدَ جَنَازَةً وَصَامَ يَوْمًا وَرَاحَ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ وَأَعْتَقَ رَقَبَةً»  

Seeking forgiveness by staying silent during the khutbah

muslim:857aUmayyah b. Bisṭām > Yazīd / Ibn Zurayʿ > Rawḥ > Suhayl from his father > Abū Hurayrah

He who took a bath and then came for Jumu'a prayer and then prayed what was fixed for him, then kept silence till the Imam finished the sermon, and then prayed along with him, his sins between that time and the next Friday would be forgiven, and even of three days more.  

مسلم:٨٥٧aحَدَّثَنَا أُمَيَّةُ بْنُ بِسْطَامٍ حَدَّثَنَا يَزِيدُ يَعْنِي ابْنَ زُرَيْعٍ حَدَّثَنَا رَوْحٌ عَنْ سُهَيْلٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ

عَنِ النَّبِيِّ ﷺ قَالَ مَنِ اغْتَسَلَ ثُمَّ أَتَى الْجُمُعَةَ فَصَلَّى مَا قُدِّرَ لَهُ ثُمَّ أَنْصَتَ حَتَّى يَفْرُغَ مِنْ خُطْبَتِهِ ثُمَّ يُصَلِّيَ مَعَهُ غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ الْجُمُعَةِ الأُخْرَى وَفَضْلَ ثَلاَثَةِ أَيَّامٍ  

Virtues of various methods of observing voluntary fasts

muslim:1162bMuḥammad b. al-Muthanná And Muḥammad b. Bashhār Wa-al-Lafẓ Ibn al-Muthanná > Muḥammad b. Jaʿfar > Shuʿbah > Ghaylān b. Jarīr > ʿAbdullāh b. Maʿbad al-Zimmānī > Abū Qatādah al-Anṣārī

We are pleased with Allah as the Lord, with Islam as our Code of Life, with Muhammad as the Messenger and with our pledge (to you for willing and cheerful submission) as a (sacred) commitment. He was then asked about perpetual fasting, whereupon he said: He neither fasted nor did he break it, or he did not fast and he did not break it. He was then asked about fasting for two days and breaking one day. He (the Holy Prophet) said: And who has strength enough to do it? He was asked about fasting for a day and breaking for two days, whereupon he said: May Allah bestow upon us strength to do it. He was then asked about fasting for a day and breaking on the other, whereupon he said: That is the fasting of my brother David (peace be upon him). He was then asked about fasting on Monday, whereupon he said: It was the day on which I was born. on which I was commissioned with prophethood or revelation was sent to me, (and he further) said: Three days' fasting every month and of the whole of Ramadan every year is a perpetual fast. He was asked about fasting on the day of 'Arafa (9th of Dhu'I-Hijja), whereupon he said: It expiates the sins of the preceding year and the coming year. He was asked about fasting on the day of 'Ashura (10th of Muharram), whereupon be said: It expiates the sins of the preceding year. (Imam Muslim said that in this hadith there is a) narration of Imam Shu'ba that he was asked about fasting on Monday and Thursday, but we (Imam Muslim) did not mention Thursday for we found it as an error (in reporting).  

مسلم:١١٦٢bحَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْمُثَنَّى وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ وَاللَّفْظُ لاِبْنِ الْمُثَنَّى قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ عَنْ غَيْلاَنَ بْنِ جَرِيرٍ سَمِعَ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ مَعْبَدٍ الزِّمَّانِيَّ عَنْ أَبِي قَتَادَةَ الأَنْصَارِيِّ ؓ

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ﷺ سُئِلَ عَنْ صَوْمِهِ قَالَ فَغَضِبَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ ؓ: رَضِينَا بِاللَّهِ رَبًّا وَبِالإِسْلاَمِ دِينًا وَبِمُحَمَّدٍ رَسُولاً وَبِبَيْعَتِنَا بَيْعَةً۔

قَالَ فَسُئِلَ عَنْ صِيَامِ الدَّهْرِ فَقَالَ: «لاَ صَامَ وَلاَ أَفْطَرَ أَوْ مَا صَامَ وَمَا أَفْطَرَ۔»

قَالَ فَسُئِلَ عَنْ صَوْمِ يَوْمَيْنِ وَإِفْطَارِ يَوْمٍ قَالَ: «وَمَنْ يُطِيقُ ذَلِكَ؟»

قَالَ وَسُئِلَ عَنْ صَوْمِ يَوْمٍ وَإِفْطَارِ يَوْمَيْنِ قَالَ: «لَيْتَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ قَوَّانَا لِذَلِكَ۔»

قَالَ وَسُئِلَ عَنْ صَوْمِ يَوْمٍ وَإِفْطَارِ يَوْمٍ قَالَ: «ذَاكَ صَوْمُ أَخِي دَاوُدَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَمُ۔»

قَالَ وَسُئِلَ عَنْ صَوْمِ يَوْمِ الاِثْنَيْنِ قَالَ: «ذَاكَ يَوْمٌ وُلِدْتُ فِيهِ، وَيَوْمٌ بُعِثْتُ أَوْ أُنْزِلَ عَلَىَّ فِيهِ۔» قَالَ فَقَالَ: «صَوْمُ ثَلاَثَةٍ مِنْ كُلِّ شَهْرٍ وَرَمَضَانَ إِلَى رَمَضَانَ صَوْمُ الدَّهْرِ۔»

قَالَ وَسُئِلَ عَنْ صَوْمِ يَوْمِ عَرَفَةَ فَقَالَ: «يُكَفِّرُ السَّنَةَ الْمَاضِيَةَ وَالْبَاقِيَةَ۔»

قَالَ وَسُئِلَ عَنْ صَوْمِ يَوْمِ عَاشُورَاءَ فَقَالَ: «يُكَفِّرُ السَّنَةَ الْمَاضِيَةَ۔»  

وَفِي هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ مِنْ رِوَايَةِ شُعْبَةَ قَالَ وَسُئِلَ عَنْ صَوْمِ يَوْمِ الاِثْنَيْنِ وَالْخَمِيسِ فَسَكَتْنَا عَنْ ذِكْرِ الْخَمِيسِ لَمَّا نَرَاهُ وَهْمًا

No deed is better than fasting the first ten days of Dhu al-Hijjah

bukhari:969Muḥammad b. ʿArʿarah > Shuʿbah > Sulaymān > Muslim al-Baṭīn > Saʿīd b. Jubayr > Ibn ʿAbbās

The Prophet ﷺ said, "No good deeds done on other days are superior to those done on these (first ten days of Dhu al-Hijjah)." Then some companions of the Prophet ﷺ said, "Not even Jihad?" He replied, "Not even Jihad, except that of a man who does it by putting himself and his property in danger (for Allah's sake) and does not return with any of those things."  

البخاري:٩٦٩حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَرْعَرَةَ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ عَنْ مُسْلِمٍ الْبَطِينِ عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ

عَنِ النَّبِيِّ ﷺ أَنَّهُ قَالَ: «مَا الْعَمَلُ فِي أَيَّامِ الْعَشْرِ أَفْضَلَ مِنَ الْعَمَلِ فِي هَذِهِ۔» [يعني: أَيامَ العشرِ] قَالُوا: وَلاَ الْجِهَادُ؟ قَالَ: «وَلاَ الْجِهَادُ إِلاَّ رَجُلٌ خَرَجَ يُخَاطِرُ بِنَفْسِهِ وَمَالِهِ فَلَمْ يَرْجِعْ بِشَىْءٍ۔»  

Ramadan is the "month of patience"

abudawud:2428Mūsá b. Ismāʿīl > Ḥammād > Saʿīd al-Jurayrī > Abū al-Salīl > Mujībah al-Bāhiliyyah > Abīhā or ʿAmmihā

The father or Uncle of Mujibah al-Bahiliyyah visited the Messenger of Allah ﷺ. He then went away and came to him (again) after one year when his condition and appearance had changed. He said: Messenger of Allah, do you not recognize me? He asked: Who are you? He replied: I am al-Bahili who came to you last year. He said: What has changed you? You were looking well, then you were good in appearance? He said: I have only food at night since I departed from you.

Thereupon the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: Why did you torment yourself? Fast during Ramadan (the month of patience) and fast for one day every month. He said: Increase it for me, for I have (more) strength. He said: Fast two days. He again said: Increase it for me. He said: Fast three days. He again said: Increase it for me. He said: Fast during the inviolable months and then stop; fast during the inviolable months and then stop; fast during the inviolable months and then stop. He indicated by his three fingers, and joined them and then opened them.  

أبو داود:٢٤٢٨حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ عَنْ سَعِيدٍ الْجُرَيْرِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي السَّلِيلِ عَنْ مُجِيبَةَ الْبَاهِلِيَّةِ عَنْ أَبِيهَا أَوْ عَمِّهَا

أَنَّهُ أَتَى رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ﷺ ثُمَّ انْطَلَقَ فَأَتَاهُ بَعْدَ سَنَةٍ وَقَدْ تَغَيَّرَتْ حَالَتُهُ وَهَيْئَتُهُ فَقَالَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَمَا تَعْرِفُنِي؟ قَالَ: «وَمَنْ أَنْتَ؟» قَالَ: أَنَا الْبَاهِلِيُّ الَّذِي جِئْتُكَ عَامَ الأَوَّلِ۔ قَالَ: «فَمَا غَيَّرَكَ وَقَدْ كُنْتَ حَسَنَ الْهَيْئَةِ؟» قَالَ: مَا أَكَلْتُ طَعَامًا إِلاَّ بِلَيْلٍ مُنْذُ فَارَقْتُكَ۔ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ: «لِمَ عَذَّبْتَ نَفْسَكَ؟»

ثُمَّ قَالَ: «صُمْ شَهْرَ الصَّبْرِ، وَيَوْمًا مِنْ كُلِّ شَهْرٍ۔» قَالَ: زِدْنِي فَإِنَّ بِي قُوَّةً۔ قَالَ: «صُمْ يَوْمَيْنِ۔» قَالَ: زِدْنِي۔ قَالَ: «صُمْ ثَلاَثَةَ أَيَّامٍ۔» قَالَ: زِدْنِي۔ قَالَ: «صُمْ مِنَ الْحُرُمِ وَاتْرُكْ، صُمْ مِنَ الْحُرُمِ وَاتْرُكْ، صُمْ مِنَ الْحُرُمِ وَاتْرُكْ۔» وَقَالَ بِأَصَابِعِهِ الثَّلاَثَةِ فَضَمَّهَا ثُمَّ أَرْسَلَهَا  

Sha'ban was the month most fasted by the Prophet ﷺ outside of Ramadan

bukhari:1970Muʿādh b. Faḍālah > Hishām > Yaḥyá > Abū Salamah > ʿĀʾishah

The Prophet ﷺ never fasted in any month more than in the month of Sha'ban.

He used to say, "Do those deeds which you can do easily, as Allah will not get tired (of giving rewards) till you get bored and tired (of performing religious deeds)." The most beloved prayer to the Prophet ﷺ was the one that was done regularly (throughout the life) even if it were little. And whenever the Prophet ﷺ offered a prayer he used to offer it regularly.  

البخاري:١٩٧٠حَدَّثَنَا مُعَاذُ بْنُ فَضَالَةَ حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامٌ عَنْ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ ؓ حَدَّثَتْهُ قَالَتْ

لَمْ يَكُنِ النَّبِيُّ ﷺ يَصُومُ شَهْرًا أَكْثَرَ مِنْ شَعْبَانَ فَإِنَّهُ كَانَ يَصُومُ شَعْبَانَ كُلَّهُ

وَكَانَ يَقُولُ خُذُوا مِنَ الْعَمَلِ مَا تُطِيقُونَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَمَلُّ حَتَّى تَمَلُّوا وَأَحَبُّ الصَّلاَةِ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ ﷺ مَا دُووِمَ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنْ قَلَّتْ وَكَانَ إِذَا صَلَّى صَلاَةً دَاوَمَ عَلَيْهَا  

Best fast after Ramadan is Muharram and the best prayer after the fard is the night prayer

muslim:1163aQutaybah b. Saʿīd > Abū ʿAwānah > Abū Bishr > Ḥumayd b. ʿAbd al-Raḥman al-Ḥimyarī > Abū Hurayrah

The most excellent fast after Ramadan is God's month. al-Muharram, and the most excellent prayer after what is prescribed is prayer during the night.  

مسلم:١١٦٣aحَدَّثَنِي قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَوَانَةَ عَنْ أَبِي بِشْرٍ عَنْ حُمَيْدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الْحِمْيَرِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ؓ قَالَ

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ أَفْضَلُ الصِّيَامِ بَعْدَ رَمَضَانَ شَهْرُ اللَّهِ الْمُحَرَّمُ وَأَفْضَلُ الصَّلاَةِ بَعْدَ الْفَرِيضَةِ صَلاَةُ اللَّيْلِ  

One may begin to fast even in a state of ritual impurity

bukhari:1925ʿAbdullāh b. Maslamah > Mālik > Suma a freed slave of Abū Bakr b. ʿAbd al-Raḥman b. al-Ḥārith b. Hishām b. al-Mughīrah > Abū Bakr b. ʿAbd al-Raḥman

At times Messenger of Allah ﷺ used to get up in the morning in the state of Janaba after having sexual relations with his wives. He would then take a bath and fast.  

البخاري:١٩٢٥حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ عَنْ مَالِكٍ عَنْ سُمَىٍّ مَوْلَى أَبِي بَكْرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ هِشَامِ بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ أَبَا بَكْرِ بْنَ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ قَالَ كُنْتُ أَنَا وَأَبِي حِينَ دَخَلْنَا عَلَى عَائِشَةَ وَأُمِّ سَلَمَةَ ح حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْيَمَانِ أَخْبَرَنَا شُعَيْبٌ عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ هِشَامٍ أَنَّ أَبَاهُ عَبْدَ الرَّحْمَنِ أَخْبَرَ مَرْوَانَ أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ وَأُمَّ سَلَمَةَ أَخْبَرَتَاهُ

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ﷺ كَانَ يُدْرِكُهُ الْفَجْرُ وَهُوَ جُنُبٌ مِنْ أَهْلِهِ ثُمَّ يَغْتَسِلُ وَيَصُومُ  

وَقَالَ مَرْوَانُ لِعَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَارِثِ أُقْسِمُ بِاللَّهِ لَتُقَرِّعَنَّ بِهَا أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ وَمَرْوَانُ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَلَى الْمَدِينَةِ فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ فَكَرِهَ ذَلِكَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ ثُمَّ قُدِّرَ لَنَا أَنْ نَجْتَمِعَ بِذِي الْحُلَيْفَةِ وَكَانَتْ لأَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ هُنَالِكَ أَرْضٌ فَقَالَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ لأَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ إِنِّي ذَاكِرٌ لَكَ أَمْرًا وَلَوْلاَ مَرْوَانُ أَقْسَمَ عَلَىَّ فِيهِ لَمْ أَذْكُرْهُ لَكَ فَذَكَرَ قَوْلَ عَائِشَةَ وَأُمِّ سَلَمَةَ فَقَالَ كَذَلِكَ حَدَّثَنِي الْفَضْلُ بْنُ عَبَّاسٍ وَهُنَّ أَعْلَمُ وَقَالَ هَمَّامٌ وَابْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ كَانَ النَّبِيُّ ﷺ يَأْمُرُ بِالْفِطْرِ وَالأَوَّلُ أَسْنَدُ

One may begin to fast even after having intimacy

muslim:1109a[Chain 1] Muḥammad b. Ḥātim > Yaḥyá b. Saʿīd > Ibn Jurayj [Chain 2] Muḥammad b. Rāfiʿ > ʿAbd al-Razzāq b. Hammām > Ibn Jurayj > ʿAbd al-Malik b. Abū Bakr b. ʿAbd al-Raḥman > Abū Bakr > Abū Hurayrah

I heard Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) narrating that he who is overtaken by dawn in a state of seminal emission should not observe fast. I made a mention of it to 'Abd al-Rahman b. Harith (i. e. to his father) but he denied it. 'Abd al-Rahman went and I also went along with him till we came to'A'isha and Umm Salama (Allah be pleased with both of them) and Abd al-Rahman asked them about it.

Both of them said: (At times it so happened) that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ woke up in the morning in a state of junub (but without seminal emission in a dream) and observed fast.

He (the narrator) said: We then proceeded till we went to Marwan and Abd al-Rahman made a mention of it to him. Upon this Marwan said: I stress upon you (with an oath) that you better go to Abu Huraira and refer to him what is said about it. So we came to Abu Huraira and Abu Bakr had been with us throughout and 'Abd al-Rahman made a mention of it to him, whereupon Abu Huraira said: Did they (the two wives of the Holy Prophet) tell you this? He replied: Yes Upon this (Abu Huraira) said: They have better knowledge. Abu Huraira then attributed that what was said about it to Fadl b. 'Abbas and said: I heard it from Fadl and not from the Messenger of Allah ﷺ. Abu Huraira then retracted from what he used to say about it. Ibn Juraij (one of the narrators) reported: I asked 'Abd al-Malik, if they (the two wives) said (made the statement) in regard to Ramadan, whereupon he said: It was so, and he (the Holy Prophet) (woke up in the) morning in a state of junub which was not due to the wet dream and then observed fast.  

مسلم:١١٠٩aحَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ حَاتِمٍ حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ ح وَحَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ رَافِعٍ وَاللَّفْظُ لَهُ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ بْنُ هَمَّامٍ أَخْبَرَنَا ابْنُ جُرَيْجٍ أَخْبَرَنِي عَبْدُ الْمَلِكِ بْنُ أَبِي بَكْرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنْ أَبِي بَكْرٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ ؓ يَقُصُّ يَقُولُ فِي قَصَصِهِ مَنْ أَدْرَكَهُ الْفَجْرُ جُنُبًا فَلاَ يَصُمْ فَذَكَرْتُ ذَلِكَ لِعَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَارِثِ لأَبِيهِ فَأَنْكَرَ ذَلِكَ فَانْطَلَقَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ وَانْطَلَقْتُ مَعَهُ حَتَّى دَخَلْنَا عَلَى عَائِشَةَ وَأُمِّ سَلَمَةَ ؓ فَسَأَلَهُمَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنْ ذَلِكَ قَالَ فَكِلْتَاهُمَا قَالَتْ

كَانَ النَّبِيُّ ﷺ يُصْبِحُ جُنُبًا مِنْ غَيْرِ حُلُمٍ ثُمَّ يَصُومُ  

قَالَ فَانْطَلَقْنَا حَتَّى دَخَلْنَا عَلَى مَرْوَانَ فَذَكَرَ ذَلِكَ لَهُ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ فَقَالَ مَرْوَانُ عَزَمْتُ عَلَيْكَ إِلاَّ مَا ذَهَبْتَ إِلَى أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ فَرَدَدْتَ عَلَيْهِ مَا يَقُولُ قَالَ فَجِئْنَا أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ وَأَبُو بَكْرٍ حَاضِرُ ذَلِكَ كُلِّهِ قَالَ فَذَكَرَ لَهُ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ فَقَالَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ أَهُمَا قَالَتَاهُ لَكَ قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ هُمَا أَعْلَمُ ثُمَّ رَدَّ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ مَا كَانَ يَقُولُ فِي ذَلِكَ إِلَى الْفَضْلِ بْنِ الْعَبَّاسِ فَقَالَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ سَمِعْتُ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْفَضْلِ وَلَمْ أَسْمَعْهُ مِنَ النَّبِيِّ ﷺ قَالَ فَرَجَعَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ عَمَّا كَانَ يَقُولُ فِي ذَلِكَ قُلْتُ لِعَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ أَقَالَتَا فِي رَمَضَانَ قَالَ كَذَلِكَ كَانَ يُصْبِحُ جُنُبًا مِنْ غَيْرِ حُلُمٍ ثُمَّ يَصُومُ

Rinsing the mouth thoroughly is from the perfection of wudu except when one is fasting

tirmidhi:788ʿAbd al-Wahhāb b. ʿAbd al-Ḥakam al-Baghdādī al-Warrāq And ʾAbū ʿAmmār al-Ḥusayn b. Ḥurayth > Yaḥyá b. Sulaym > Ismāʿīl b. Kathīr > ʿĀṣim b. Laqīṭ b. Ṣabrah from his father

From his father who said: "I said. 'O Messenger of Allah! Inform me about Wudu.' So he said: "Perform Wudu well, and go between the fingers, and perform Istinshaq extensively except when fasting."  

الترمذي:٧٨٨حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْوَهَّابِ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْحَكَمِ الْبَغْدَادِيُّ الْوَرَّاقُ وَأَبُو عَمَّارٍ الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ حُرَيْثٍ قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ سُلَيْمٍ حَدَّثَنِي إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ كَثِيرٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ عَاصِمَ بْنَ لَقِيطِ بْنِ صَبْرَةَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ

قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الْوُضُوءِ قَالَ أَسْبِغِ الْوُضُوءَ وَخَلِّلْ بَيْنَ الأَصَابِعِ وَبَالِغْ فِي الاِسْتِنْشَاقِ إِلاَّ أَنْ تَكُونَ صَائِمًا  

قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ وَقَدْ كَرِهَ أَهْلُ الْعِلْمِ السَّعُوطَ لِلصَّائِمِ وَرَأَوْا أَنَّ ذَلِكَ يُفْطِرُهُ وَفِي الْحَدِيثِ مَا يُقَوِّي قَوْلَهُمْ

Accidentally eating or drinking does not break one's fast

bukhari:1933ʿAbdān > Yazīd b. Zurayʿ > Hishām > Ibn Sīrīn > Abū Hurayrah

The Prophet ﷺ said, "If somebody eats or drinks forgetfully then he should complete his fast, for what he has eaten or drunk, has been given to him by Allah."  

البخاري:١٩٣٣حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدَانُ أَخْبَرَنَا يَزِيدُ بْنُ زُرَيْعٍ حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامٌ حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ سِيرِينَ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ؓ

عَنِ النَّبِيِّ ﷺ قَالَ إِذَا نَسِيَ فَأَكَلَ وَشَرِبَ فَلْيُتِمَّ صَوْمَهُ فَإِنَّمَا أَطْعَمَهُ اللَّهُ وَسَقَاهُ  

Safeguarding oneself from bad actions while fasting is from the perfection of fasting

bukhari:1903Ādam b. Abū Iyās > Ibn Abū Dhiʾb > Saʿīd al-Maqburī from his father > Abū Hurayrah

The Prophet ﷺ said, "Whoever does not give up forged speech and evil actions, Allah is not in need of his leaving his food and drink (i.e. Allah will not accept his fasting.)"  

البخاري:١٩٠٣حَدَّثَنَا آدَمُ بْنُ أَبِي إِيَاسٍ حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ أَبِي ذِئْبٍ حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدٌ الْمَقْبُرِيُّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ؓ قَالَ

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ مَنْ لَمْ يَدَعْ قَوْلَ الزُّورِ وَالْعَمَلَ بِهِ فَلَيْسَ لِلَّهِ حَاجَةٌ فِي أَنْ يَدَعَ طَعَامَهُ وَشَرَابَهُ  

Recommendation to break the fast with rutab (rutabah) dates

abudawud:2356Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal > ʿAbd al-Razzāq > Jaʿfar b. Sulaymān > Thābit al-Bunānī > Anas b. Mālik

The Messenger of Allah ﷺ used to break his fast before praying with some rutabah dates; but if there were no rutabah dates, he had a few fully ripened dates, and if there were no fully ripened dates, he took some mouthfuls of water.  

أبو داود:٢٣٥٦حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ حَنْبَلٍ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ حَدَّثَنَا جَعْفَرُ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ حَدَّثَنَا ثَابِتٌ الْبُنَانِيُّ

أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ أَنَسَ بْنَ مَالِكٍ يَقُولُ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ يُفْطِرُ عَلَى رُطَبَاتٍ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُصَلِّيَ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ رُطَبَاتٌ فَعَلَى تَمَرَاتٍ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ حَسَا حَسَوَاتٍ مِنْ مَاءٍ  

Recommendation to break the fast with dates

tirmidhi:695[Chain 1] Maḥmūd b. Ghaylān > Wakīʿ > Sufyān > ʿĀṣim al-Aḥwal [Chain 2] Hannād > Abū Muʿāwiyah > ʿĀṣim al-Aḥwal > Qutaybah > Sufyān b. ʿUyaynah > ʿĀṣim al-Aḥwal > Ḥafṣah b. Sīrīn > al-Rabāb > Salmān b. ʿĀmir al-Ḍabbī

the Prophet ﷺ said: "When one of you breaks his fast, then let him do so with dried dates. And whoever does not find dates, then water, for it is purifying."  

Abū ʿĪsá said that this Ḥadīth is Ḥasan-Ṣaḥīḥ.
الترمذي:٦٩٥حَدَّثَنَا مَحْمُودُ بْنُ غَيْلاَنَ حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ عَنْ عَاصِمٍ الأَحْوَلِ ح وَحَدَّثَنَا هَنَّادٌ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مُعَاوِيَةَ عَنْ عَاصِمٍ الأَحْوَلِ وَحَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ قَالَ أَنْبَأَنَا سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ عَنْ عَاصِمٍ الأَحْوَلِ عَنْ حَفْصَةَ بِنْتِ سِيرِينَ عَنِ الرَّبَابِ عَنْ سَلْمَانَ بْنِ عَامِرٍ الضَّبِّيِّ

عَنِ النَّبِيِّ ﷺ قَالَ إِذَا أَفْطَرَ أَحَدُكُمْ فَلْيُفْطِرْ عَلَى تَمْرٍ زَادَ ابْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ فَإِنَّهُ بَرَكَةٌ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَلْيُفْطِرْ عَلَى مَاءٍ فَإِنَّهُ طَهُورٌ  

قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ

Hastening to break the fast when the night falls toward the west

bukhari:1955Isḥāq al-Wāsiṭī > Khālid > al-Shaybānī > ʿAbdullāh b. Abū Awfá

We were in the company of the Prophet ﷺ on a journey and he was fasting, and when the sun set, he addressed somebody, "O so-and-so, get up and mix Sawiq with water for us." He replied, "O Allah's Apostle! (Will you wait) till it is evening?" The Prophet ﷺ said, "Get down and mix Sawiq with water for us." He replied, "O Messenger of Allah ﷺ! (If you wait) till it is evening." The Prophet ﷺ said again, "Get down and mix Sawiq with water for us." He replied, "It is still daytime."(1) The Prophet ﷺ said again, "Get down and mix Sawiq with water for us." He got down and mixed Sawiq for them. The Prophet ﷺ drank it and then said, "When you see night falling from this side, the fasting person should break his fast."  

البخاري:١٩٥٥حَدَّثَنَا إِسْحَاقُ الْوَاسِطِيُّ حَدَّثَنَا خَالِدٌ عَنِ الشَّيْبَانِيِّ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي أَوْفَى ؓ قَالَ

كُنَّا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ﷺ فِي سَفَرٍ وَهُوَ صَائِمٌ فَلَمَّا غَرَبَتِ الشَّمْسُ قَالَ لِبَعْضِ الْقَوْمِ يَا فُلاَنُ قُمْ فَاجْدَحْ لَنَا فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ لَوْ أَمْسَيْتَ قَالَ انْزِلْ فَاجْدَحْ لَنَا قَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَلَوْ أَمْسَيْتَ قَالَ انْزِلْ فَاجْدَحْ لَنَا قَالَ إِنَّ عَلَيْكَ نَهَارًا قَالَ انْزِلْ فَاجْدَحْ لَنَا فَنَزَلَ فَجَدَحَ لَهُمْ فَشَرِبَ النَّبِيُّ ﷺ ثُمَّ قَالَ إِذَا رَأَيْتُمُ اللَّيْلَ قَدْ أَقْبَلَ مِنْ هَا هُنَا فَقَدْ أَفْطَرَ الصَّائِمُ  

Most beloved servants are those who hasten to break the fast

tirmidhi:700Isḥāq b. Mūsá al-Anṣārī > al-Walīd b. Muslim > al-Awzāʿī > Qurrah b. ʿAbd al-Raḥman > al-Zuhrī > Abū Salamah > Abū Hurayrah

the Messenger of Allah said: "Allah, Mighty and Sublime is He, said: 'Those of My worshippers who are most beloved to me are the quickest to break their fast.'"  

الترمذي:٧٠٠حَدَّثَنَا إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ مُوسَى الأَنْصَارِيُّ حَدَّثَنَا الْوَلِيدُ بْنُ مُسْلِمٍ عَنِ الأَوْزَاعِيِّ عَنْ قُرَّةَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ قَالَ اللَّهُ ﷻ: «أَحَبُّ عِبَادِي إِلَىَّ أَعْجَلُهُمْ فِطْرًا۔»  

The Prophet ﷺ hastened to break the fast

muslim:1099bAbū Kurayb > Ibn Abū Zāʾidah > al-Aʿmash > ʿUmārah > Abū ʿAṭiyyah > Dakhalt

I and Misruq went to 'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) and Masruq said to her: There are two persons among the Companions of Muhammad ﷺ none of whom abandons the good, but one of them hastens to observe sunset prayer and break the fast, and the other delays in observing the sunset prayer and in breaking the fast, whereupon she said: Who hastens to observe sunset prayer and break the fast? He said: It is 'Abdullah. Upon this she said: This is how the Messenger of Allah ﷺ used to do.  

مسلم:١٠٩٩bوَحَدَّثَنَا أَبُو كُرَيْبٍ أَخْبَرَنَا ابْنُ أَبِي زَائِدَةَ عَنِ الأَعْمَشِ عَنْ عُمَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَطِيَّةَ قَالَ

دَخَلْتُ أَنَا وَمَسْرُوقٌ عَلَى عَائِشَةَ ؓ فَقَالَ لَهَا مَسْرُوقٌ: رَجُلاَنِ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ مُحَمَّدٍ ﷺ كِلاَهُمَا لاَ يَأْلُو عَنِ الْخَيْرِ: أَحَدُهُمَا يُعَجِّلُ الْمَغْرِبَ وَالإِفْطَارَ، وَالآخَرُ يُؤَخِّرُ الْمَغْرِبَ وَالإِفْطَارَ۔ فَقَالَتْ: مَنْ يُعَجِّلُ الْمَغْرِبَ وَالإِفْطَارَ؟ قَالَ: عَبْدُ اللَّهِ فَقَالَتْ: هَكَذَا كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ يَصْنَعُ  

Recommendation to hasten breaking the fast

bukhari:1957ʿAbdullāh b. Yūsuf > Mālik > Abū Ḥāzim > Sahl b. Saʿd

that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, "The people will remain on the right path as long as they hasten the breaking of the fast."  

البخاري:١٩٥٧حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ يُوسُفَ أَخْبَرَنَا مَالِكٌ عَنْ أَبِي حَازِمٍ عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ﷺ قَالَ لاَ يَزَالُ النَّاسُ بِخَيْرٍ مَا عَجَّلُوا الْفِطْرَ  

The People of the Book did not eat suhur

muslim:1096aQutaybah b. Saʿīd > Layth > Mūsá b. ʿUla from his father > Abū Qays a freed slave of ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣ > ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣ

that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: "The difference between our ˹way of˺ fasting and that of the People of the Book is eating of the suhur.  

مسلم:١٠٩٦aحَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ حَدَّثَنَا لَيْثٌ عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ عُلَىٍّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ أَبِي قَيْسٍ مَوْلَى عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِ

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ﷺ قَالَ فَصْلُ مَا بَيْنَ صِيَامِنَا وَصِيَامِ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ أَكْلَةُ السَّحَرِ  

Recommendation to eat suhur until the adhan of Fajr

muslim:1092cIbn Numayr from my father > ʿUbaydullāh > Nāfiʿ > Ibn ʿUmar

There were to callers of adhan for the Messenger of Allah ﷺ: Bilal and Ibn Umm Maktum, the blind. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: "Bilal announces the adhan at night, so eat and drink until Ibn Umm Maktum announces adhan." And he ˹the narrator˺ said: "The ˹period˺ between their ˹adhans˺ was not more than this that one climbing down ˹from the place of adhan˺ and the other one climbing up."  

مسلم:١٠٩٢cحَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ نُمَيْرٍ حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ عَنْ نَافِعٍ عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ ؓ قَالَ

كَانَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ ﷺ مُؤَذِّنَانِ بِلاَلٌ وَابْنُ أُمِّ مَكْتُومٍ الأَعْمَى فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ إِنَّ بِلاَلاً يُؤَذِّنُ بِلَيْلٍ فَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّى يُؤَذِّنَ ابْنُ أُمِّ مَكْتُومٍ قَالَ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ بَيْنَهُمَا إِلاَّ أَنْ يَنْزِلَ هَذَا وَيَرْقَى هَذَا  

Recommendation to eat suhur close to start of Fajr

bukhari:575ʿAmr b. ʿĀṣim > Hammām > Qatādah > Anas > Zayd b. Thābit

they took the Suhur (predawn meal) with the Prophet ﷺ and then stood up for the (morning) prayer. I asked him: "How long was the interval between the two (Suhur and Fajr)?" He replied: "The interval between the two was just sufficient to recite fifty or sixty ayah."  

البخاري:٥٧٥حَدَّثَنَا عَمْرُو بْنُ عَاصِمٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا هَمَّامٌ عَنْ قَتَادَةَ عَنْ أَنَسٍ أَنَّ زَيْدَ بْنَ ثَابِتٍ حَدَّثَهُ

«أَنَّهُمْ تَسَحَّرُوا مَعَ النَّبِيِّ ﷺ، ثُمَّ قَامُوا إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ، قُلْتُ: كَمْ بَيْنَهُمَا؟ قَالَ: قَدْرُ خَمْسِينَ أَوْ سِتِّينَ يَعْنِي آيَةً»  

Recommendation to eat suhur close to start of Fajr

muslim:1097aAbū Bakr b. Abū Shaybah > Wakīʿ > Hishām > Qatādah > Anas > Zayd b. Thābit

We took meal shortly before dawn along with the Messenger of Allah ﷺ. We then stood up for ˹Fajr˺ prayer. I said: How much span of time was there between the two (Suhur and Fajr)? He said: ˹a span of reciting˺ fifty verses.  

مسلم:١٠٩٧aحَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ عَنْ هِشَامٍ عَنْ قَتَادَةَ عَنْ أَنَسٍ عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ ؓ قَالَ

تَسَحَّرْنَا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ﷺ ثُمَّ قُمْنَا إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ قُلْتُ كَمْ كَانَ قَدْرُ مَا بَيْنَهُمَا؟ قَالَ خَمْسِينَ آيَةً۔  

Suhur is full of blessings

bukhari:1923Ādam b. Abū Iyās > Shuʿbah > ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Ṣuhayb > Anas b. Mālik

The Prophet ﷺ said, "Take Suhur as there is a blessing in it."  

البخاري:١٩٢٣حَدَّثَنَا آدَمُ بْنُ أَبِي إِيَاسٍ حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْعَزِيزِ بْنُ صُهَيْبٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَنَسَ بْنَ مَالِكٍ ؓ قَالَ

قَالَ النَّبِيُّ ﷺ تَسَحَّرُوا فَإِنَّ فِي السَّحُورِ بَرَكَةً  

Dua when sighting the new crescent moon

tirmidhi:3451Muḥammad b. Bashhār > Abū ʿĀmir al-ʿAqadī > Sulaymān b. Sufyān al-Madanī > Bilāl b. Yaḥyá b. Ṭalḥah b. ʿUbaydullāh from his father from his grandfather Ṭalḥah b. ʿUbaydullāh

that when the Prophet ﷺ would see a crescent moon, he would say:

allāhumma ahlilhu ʿalaynā bi-al-yumni wa-al-īmān, wa-al-salāmati wa-al-islām, rabbī wa-rabbuka Allāh

(O Allah, bring it over us with blessing and faith, and security and Islam. My Lord and your Lord is Allah.)”  

Abū ʿĪsá said that this Ḥadīth is Ḥasan-Gharīb.
الترمذي:٣٤٥١حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَامِرٍ الْعَقَدِيُّ حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ سُفْيَانَ الْمَدَنِيُّ حَدَّثَنِي بِلاَلُ بْنُ يَحْيَى بْنِ طَلْحَةَ بْنِ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ جَدِّهِ طَلْحَةَ بْنِ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ

أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ ﷺ كَانَ إِذَا رَأَى الْهِلاَلَ قَالَ:

«(اللَّهُمَّ أَهْلِلْهُ عَلَيْنَا بِالْيُمْنِ وَالإِيمَانِ وَالسَّلاَمَةِ وَالإِسْلاَمِ رَبِّي وَرَبُّكَ اللَّهُ)»  

قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ

Prohibition to fast during the second half of Sha'ban

tirmidhi:738Qutaybah > ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Muḥammad > al-ʿAlāʾ b. ʿAbd al-Raḥman from his father > Abū Hurayrah

the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: "When one half of ˹the month of˺ Shaʿbān remains then do not ˹continue to˺ fast."  

Abū ʿĪsa said: Ḥadīth of Abū Hurayrah is a Ḥasan-Ṣaḥīḥ ḥadīth. We don't know of it from any other context other with this wording and meaning. This ḥadīth is with certain people of knowledge
الترمذي:٧٣٨حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ؛ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْعَزِيزِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ؛ عَنِ الْعَلاَءِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ؛ عَنْ أَبِيهِ؛ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ: «إِذَا بَقِيَ نِصْفٌ مِنْ شَعْبَانَ فَلاَ تَصُومُوا۔»  

قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى حَدِيثُ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ لاَ نَعْرِفُهُ إِلاَّ مِنْ هَذَا الْوَجْهِ عَلَى هَذَا اللَّفْظِ وَمَعْنَى هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ عِنْدَ بَعْضِ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ أَنْ يَكُونَ الرَّجُلُ مُفْطِرًا فَإِذَا بَقِيَ مِنْ شَعْبَانَ شَيْءٌ أَخَذَ فِي الصَّوْمِ لِحَالِ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ وَقَدْ رُوِيَ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ ﷺ مَا يُشْبِهُ قَوْلَهُمْ حَيْثُ قَالَ ﷺ لاَ تَقَدَّمُوا شَهْرَ رَمَضَانَ بِصِيَامٍ إِلاَّ أَنْ يُوَافِقَ ذَلِكَ صَوْمًا كَانَ يَصُومُهُ أَحَدُكُمْ وَقَدْ دَلَّ فِي هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ أَنَّمَا الْكَرَاهِيَةُ عَلَى مَنْ يَتَعَمَّدُ الصِّيَامَ لِحَالِ رَمَضَانَ

Prohibition to fast before the beginning of Ramadan

tirmidhi:688Qutaybah > Abū al-Aḥwaṣ > Simāk b. Ḥarb > ʿIkrimah > Ibn ʿAbbās

the Messenger of Allah said: "Do not fast before Ramadan. Fast with its sighting, and break fast with its sighting, and if it is obscured from you due to a cloudy sky, then complete thirty days."  

الترمذي:٦٨٨حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الأَحْوَصِ عَنْ سِمَاكِ بْنِ حَرْبٍ عَنْ عِكْرِمَةَ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ: «لاَ تَصُومُوا قَبْلَ رَمَضَانَ: صُومُوا لِرُؤْيَتِهِ، وَأَفْطِرُوا لِرُؤْيَتِهِ۔ فَإِنْ حَالَتْ دُونَهُ غَيَايَةٌ فَأَكْمِلُوا ثَلاَثِينَ يَوْمًا۔»  

وَفِي الْبَابِ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ وَأَبِي بَكْرَةَ وَابْنِ عُمَرَ؛ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى حَدِيثُ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ وَقَدْ رُوِيَ عَنْهُ مِنْ غَيْرِ وَجْهٍ

Prohibition to fast a day or two before Ramadan

bukhari:1914Muslim b. Ibrāhīm > Hishām > Yaḥyá b. Abū Kathīr > Abū Salamah > Abū Hurayrah

The Prophet ﷺ said, "None of you should fast ˹a voluntary fast˺ a day or two before the month of Ramadan unless he has the habit of fasting ˹such days voluntarily˺ then he may fast that day."  

البخاري:١٩١٤حَدَّثَنَا مُسْلِمُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامٌ حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ أَبِي كَثِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ؓ

عَنِ النَّبِيِّ ﷺ قَالَ: «لاَ يَتَقَدَّمَنَّ أَحَدُكُمْ رَمَضَانَ بِصَوْمِ يَوْمٍ أَوْ يَوْمَيْنِ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ رَجُلٌ كَانَ يَصُومُ صَوْمَهُ فَلْيَصُمْ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمَ۔»