5. Sūrat al-Māʾidah (1/3)

٥۔ سُورَةُ المَائدة ص ١

The Table (Medinan)

quran:5:1In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.

O you who have believed, fulfill ˹all˺ contracts. Lawful for you are the animals of grazing livestock except for that which is recited to you ˹in this Qur'an˺ - hunting not being permitted while you are in the state of ihram. Indeed, Allah ordains what He intends.  

O you who believe, fulfil your bonds, the covenants confirmed between you and God and ˹between you and other˺ people. Lawful to you is the beast of the flocks, camels, cattle, and sheep ˹and goats˺, to eat after slaughtering ˹them˺, except that which is now being recited to you, as forbidden in ˹the verse below˺ Forbidden to you are carrion…˹Q. 5:3˺; the exceptive clause here is a discontinuous one, but may also be continuous; the forbidding concerns that which has succumbed to death and the like; game not being lawful to you when you are on pilgrimage (hurum means muhrimūn; ghayra, ‘not’, is in the accusative as ˹it introduces˺ a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject of the pronoun lakum, ‘to you’). Verily, God decrees whatever He desires, in the way of making ˹things˺ lawful or otherwise, and there can be no objection thereto.
القرآن:٥:١بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَوْفُوا بِالْعُقُودِ ۚ أُحِلَّتْ لَكُمْ بَهِيمَةُ الْأَنْعَامِ إِلَّا مَا يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ غَيْرَ مُحِلِّي الصَّيْدِ وَأَنْتُمْ حُرُمٌ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَحْكُمُ مَا يُرِيدُ  

{يا أيها الذين آمنوا أوفوا بالعقود} العهود المؤكدة التي بينكم وبين الله والناس {أحلت لكم بهيمة الأنعام} الإبل والبقر والغنم أكلاً بعد الذبح {إلا ما يتلى عليكم} تحريمه في (حُرمت عليكم الميتة) الآية فالاستثناء منقطع ويجوز أن يكون متصلا والتحريم لما عرض من الموت ونحوه {غيرَ محلي الصيد وأنتم حرم} أي محرمون ونصب غير على الحال من ضمير لكم {إن الله يحكم ما يريد} من التحليل وغيره لا اعترض عليه.

O you who have believed, do not violate the rites of Allah or ˹the sanctity of˺ the sacred month or ˹neglect the marking of˺ the sacrificial animals and garlanding ˹them˺ or ˹violate the safety of˺ those coming to the Sacred House seeking bounty from their Lord and ˹His˺ approval. But when you come out of ihram, then ˹you may˺ hunt. And do not let the hatred of a people for having obstructed you from al-Masjid al-Haram lead you to transgress. And cooperate in righteousness and piety, but do not cooperate in sin and aggression. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is severe in penalty.  

O you who believe, do not profane God’s sacraments (sha‘ā’ir is the plural of sha‘īra), that is, the ˹ritual˺ ceremonies of the religion, by hunting ˹game˺ while you are on pilgrimage, nor the sacred month, by fighting in it, nor the offering, that is, the boon offered in the ˹Meccan˺ Sanctuary, by interfering with it, nor the garlands (qalā’id, is the plural of qilāda, and these, made from the trees around the Sanctuary, were placed around it ˹the offering˺ to protect it), in other words, do not interfere with these ˹offerings˺ or with those who place them; nor, violate the sanctity of, those repairing, those heading, to the Sacred House, by fighting them ˹who are˺, seeking bounty, provision, from their Lord, through commerce, and, His, beatitude, by resorting to Him, as they ˹the Meccans pagans˺ falsely claimed (this was abrogated by the barā’a verse ˹of sūrat al-Tawba, Q. 9:4˺). But when you are discharged, from pilgrimage inviolability, then hunt for game (a command denoting permission). And let not hatred (read shana’ānu or shan’ānu) of a people that, because ˹they˺, barred you from the Sacred Mosque cause you to commit aggression, against them by killing them or otherwise. Help one another to righteousness, by doing that to which you were enjoined, and piety, by refraining from what you have been forbidden; do not help one another (ta‘āwanū: one of the two original tā’ letters ˹in tata‘āwanū˺ has been omitted) to sin, acts of disobedience, and enmity, transgression of God’s bounds. And fear God, fear His punishment by being obedient to Him; surely God is severe in retribution, against those that oppose Him.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُحِلُّوا شَعَائِرَ اللَّهِ وَلَا الشَّهْرَ الْحَرَامَ وَلَا الْهَدْيَ وَلَا الْقَلَائِدَ وَلَا آمِّينَ الْبَيْتَ الْحَرَامَ يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَرِضْوَانًا ۚ وَإِذَا حَلَلْتُمْ فَاصْطَادُوا ۚ وَلَا يَجْرِمَنَّكُمْ شَنَآنُ قَوْمٍ أَنْ صَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ أَنْ تَعْتَدُوا ۘ وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَىٰ ۖ وَلَا تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ  

{يا أيها الذين آمنوا لا تحلوا شعائر الله} جمع شعيرة أي معالم دينه بالصيد في الإحرام {ولا الشهر الحرام} بالقتال فيه {ولا الهدْي} ما أهدى إلى الحرم من النِّعم بالتعرض له {ولا القلائد} جمع قلادة وهي ما كان يقلد به من شجر الحرم ليأمن أي فلا تتعرضوا لها ولا لأصحابها {ولا} تحلوا {آمِّين} قاصدين {البيت الحرام} بأن تقاتلوهم {يبتغون فضلا} رزقا {من ربهم} بالتجارة {ورضوانا} منه بقصده بزعمهم الفاسد وهذا منسوخ بآية براءة {وإذا حللتم} من الإحرام {فاصطادوا} أمر إباحة {ولا يجرمنَّكم} يكسبنكم {شنَآن} بفتح النون وسكونها بغض (قوم) لأجل {أن صدوكم عن المسجد الحرام أن تعتدوا} عليهم بالقتل وغيره {وتعاونوا على البرِّ} بفعل ما أمرتم به {والتقوى} بترك ما نهيتم عنه {ولا تعاونوا} فيه حذف إحدى التاءين في الأصل {على الإثم} المعاصي {والعدوان} التعدي في حدود الله {واتقوا الله} خافوا عقابه بأن تطيعوه {إن الله شديد العقاب} لمن خالفه.

Prohibited to you are dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah, and ˹those animals˺ killed by strangling or by a violent blow or by a head-long fall or by the goring of horns, and those from which a wild animal has eaten, except what you ˹are able to˺ slaughter ˹before its death˺, and those which are sacrificed on stone altars, and ˹prohibited is˺ that you seek decision through divining arrows. That is grave disobedience. This day those who disbelieve have despaired of ˹defeating˺ your religion; so fear them not, but fear Me. This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion. But whoever is forced by severe hunger with no inclination to sin - then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.  

Forbidden to you is carrion, that is, the consumption of it, and blood, that is, what has been spilt, as mentioned in ˹sūrat˺ al-An‘ām ˹Q. 6:145˺, and the flesh of swine, and what has been hallowed to other than God, in that it was sacrificed in the name of something other than Him, and the beast strangled, to death, and the beast beaten down, to death, and the beast fallen, from a height to its death, and the beast gored, to death by another, and what beasts of prey have devoured, of such animals — except for what you have sacrificed duly, catching it while it still breathes life and then sacrificing it — and what has been sacrificed in, the name of, idols (nusub is the plural of nusāb) and that you apportion, that is, that you demand an oath or a ruling, through the divining of arrows (azlām: the plural of zalam or zulam, which is a qidh, ‘a small arrow’, without feathers or a head). There were seven of these ˹arrows˺, ˹marked˺ with flags, and they were retained by the keeper of the Ka‘ba. They would use them for abitrations and when they commanded them they obeyed, and if they prohibited them they would desist; that is wickedness, a rebellion against obedience. And on the Day of ‘Arafa in the year of the Farewell Pilgrimage, the following was revealed: Today the disbelievers have despaired of your religion, of you apostatising from it, having hoped for it ˹earlier˺, for now they perceived its strength; therefore do not fear them, but fear Me. Today I have perfected your religion for you, that is, its rulings and obligations (after this ˹verse˺ nothing about ˹what is˺ lawful or unlawful was revealed) and I have completed My favour upon you, by perfecting it ˹your religion˺, but it is also said by ˹effecting˺ their safe entry into Mecca; and I have approved, chosen, Islam for you as religion. But whoever is constrained by emptiness, by hunger, to consume some of what has been forbidden him and consumes it, not inclining purposely to sin, to an act of disobedience — then God is Forgiving, to him for what he has consumed, Merciful, to him by permitting it to him, in contrast to the one who ˹purposely˺ inclines to sin, that is, the one actively engaged in it, such as a waylayer or a criminal, for whom ˹such˺ consumption is forbidden.

حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةُ وَالدَّمُ وَلَحْمُ الْخِنْزِيرِ وَمَا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ وَالْمُنْخَنِقَةُ وَالْمَوْقُوذَةُ وَالْمُتَرَدِّيَةُ وَالنَّطِيحَةُ وَمَا أَكَلَ السَّبُعُ إِلَّا مَا ذَكَّيْتُمْ وَمَا ذُبِحَ عَلَى النُّصُبِ وَأَنْ تَسْتَقْسِمُوا بِالْأَزْلَامِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ فِسْقٌ ۗ الْيَوْمَ يَئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ دِينِكُمْ فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِ ۚ الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا ۚ فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ فِي مَخْمَصَةٍ غَيْرَ مُتَجَانِفٍ لِإِثْمٍ ۙ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ  

{حرِّمت عليكم الميتة} أي أكلها {والدم} أي المسفوح كما في الأنعام {ولحم الخنزير وما أهل لغير الله به} بأن ذُبح على اسم غيره {والمنخنقة} الميتة خنقا {والموقوذة} المقتولة ضربا {والمتردية} الساقطة من علو إلى أسفل فماتت {والنطيحة} المقتولة بنطح أخرى لها {وما أكل السبع} منه {إلا ما ذكيتم} أي أدركتم فيه الروح من هذه الأشياء فذبحتموه {وما ذُبح على} اسم {النصب} جمع نصاب وهي الأصنام {وأن تستقسموا} تطلبوا القسم والحكم {بالأزلام} جمع زلم بفتح الزاي وضمها مع فتح اللام قدح _بكسر القاف_ صغير لا ريش له ولا نصل وكانت سبعة عند سادن الكعبة عليها أعلام وكانوا يحكمونها فإن أمرتهم ائتمروا وإن نهتهم انتهوا {ذلكم فسق} خروج عن الطاعة. ونزل يوم عرفة عام حجة الوداع {اليوم يئس الذين كفروا من دينكم} أن ترتدوا عنه بعد طمعهم في ذلك لما رأوا من قوته {فلا تخشوهم واخشون اليوم أكملتُ لكم دينكم} أحكامه وفرائضه فلم ينزل بعدها حلال ولا حرام {وأتممت عليكم نعمتي} بإكماله وقيل بدخول مكة آمنين {ورضيت} أي اخترت {لكم الإسلام دينا فمن اضطر في مخمصة} مجاعة إلى أكل شيء مما حرم عليه فأكله {غير متجانف} مائل {لإثم} معصية {فإن الله غفور} له ما أكل {رحيم} به في إباحته له بخلاف المائل لإثم أي المتلبس به كقاطع الطريق والباغي مثلا فلا يحل له الأكل.

They ask you, ˹O Muhammad˺, what has been made lawful for them. Say, "Lawful for you are ˹all˺ good foods and ˹game caught by˺ what you have trained of hunting animals which you train as Allah has taught you. So eat of what they catch for you, and mention the name of Allah upon it, and fear Allah." Indeed, Allah is swift in account.  

They will ask you, O Muhammad (s), about what, food, is made lawful for them. Say: ‘The good, delicious, things are made lawful for you; and the, quarry of, hunting creatures, dogs, wildcats or birds that catch food, you have taught, training ˹them˺ as hounds (mukallibīn is a circumstantial qualifier, derived from kallabtu al-kalba, meaning, ‘I released the hound against the quarry’) teaching them (tu‘allimūnahunna is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject of mukallibīn, ‘training ˹them˺ as hounds’, in other words, ‘disciplining them’) of what God has taught you, of the art of hunting; so eat what they have caught for you, even if they have killed it, as long as they have not eaten any of it. This is in contrast to the untrained ˹hunting creatures˺, whose catch is not lawful ˹for consumption˺: the mark of these ˹being trained hunting creatures˺ is that they should return after they have been sent out, that they can be curbed when cried at and that they can seize the quarry without eating of it; the minimum number of times by which this may be known is three. If they eat any of it, then it cannot be counted as ‘what they have caught’ for their trainers, and is consequently unlawful for consumption, as reported in hadīth in both of the Sahīhs ˹of Bukhārī and Muslim˺ — therein it is also mentioned that a catch made by an arrow over which God’s name is mentioned is equivalent ˹in lawfulness˺ to the catch of trained hunting creatures. And mention God’s name over it, when you unleash it. And fear God. Indeed, God is swift at the reckoning’.

يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا أُحِلَّ لَهُمْ ۖ قُلْ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ ۙ وَمَا عَلَّمْتُمْ مِنَ الْجَوَارِحِ مُكَلِّبِينَ تُعَلِّمُونَهُنَّ مِمَّا عَلَّمَكُمُ اللَّهُ ۖ فَكُلُوا مِمَّا أَمْسَكْنَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَاذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ  

{يسئلونك} يا محمد {ماذا أُحل لهم} من الطعام {قل أحل لكم الطيَّبات} المستلذات {و} صيد {ما علَّمتم من الجوارح} الكواسب من الكلاب والسباع والطير {مكلِّبين} حال من كلَّبت الكلب بالتشديد أي أرسلته على الصيد {تعلمونهن} حال من ضمير مكلبين أي تؤدبونهن {مما علَّمَكُمُ الله} من آداب الصيد {فكلوا مما أمسكن عليكم} وإن قتلته بأن لم يأكلن منه بخلاف غير المعلمة فلا يحل صيدها وعلامتها أن تترسل إذا أرسلت وتنزجر إذا زجرت وتمسك الصيد ولا تأكل منه وأقل ما يعرف به ثلاث مرات فإن أكلت منه فليس مما أمسكن على صاحبها فلا يحل أكله كما في حديث الصحيحين وفيه أن صيد السهم إذا أرسل وذكر اسم الله عليه كصيد المعلم من الجوارح {واذكروا اسم الله عليه} عند إرساله {واتقوا الله إن الله سريع الحساب}.

This day ˹all˺ good foods have been made lawful, and the food of those who were given the Scripture is lawful for you and your food is lawful for them. And ˹lawful in marriage are˺ chaste women from among the believers and chaste women from among those who were given the Scripture before you, when you have given them their due compensation, desiring chastity, not unlawful sexual intercourse or taking ˹secret˺ lovers. And whoever denies the faith - his work has become worthless, and he, in the Hereafter, will be among the losers.  

Today the good, the delicious, things are permitted to you, and the food of those who were given the Scripture, that is, animals slaughtered by the Jews and Christians, is permitted to you, and permitted to them is your food. Likewise, the believing, free, married women, and the married women of those who were given the Scripture before you, are permitted to you for marriage, if you give them their wages, their dowries, in wedlock, in marriage, and not illicitly, fornicating overtly with them, or taking them as lovers, so as to fornicate with them secretly. Whoever disbelieves in faith, that is, ˹whose˺ apostatises, his, prior good, work has indeed failed, and so it counts for nothing and he will not be rewarded for it, and in the Hereafter he shall be among the losers, if he dies in this state ˹of unbelief˺. 2848851345

الْيَوْمَ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ ۖ وَطَعَامُ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ حِلٌّ لَكُمْ وَطَعَامُكُمْ حِلٌّ لَهُمْ ۖ وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ إِذَا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ مُحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحِينَ وَلَا مُتَّخِذِي أَخْدَانٍ ۗ وَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِالْإِيمَانِ فَقَدْ حَبِطَ عَمَلُهُ وَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ  

{اليوم أحل لكم الطيبات} المستلذات {وطعام الذين أوتوا الكتاب} أي ذبائح اليهود والنصارى {حلٌ} حلال {لكم وطعامكم} إياهم {حل لهم والمحصنات من المؤمنات والمحصنات} الحرائر {من الذين أوتوا الكتاب من قبلكم} حل لكم أن تنكحوهن {إذا آتيتموهنَّ أجورهنَّ} مهورهنَّ {محصنين} متزوجين {غير مسافحين} معلنين بالزنا بهن {ولا متخذي أخدان} منهن تسرون بالزنا بهن {ومن يكفر بالإيمان} أي يرتد {فقد حبط عمله} الصالح قبل ذلك فلا يعتد به ولا يثاب عليه {وهو في الآخرة من الخاسرين} إذا مات عليه.

O you who have believed, when you rise to ˹perform˺ prayer, wash your faces and your forearms to the elbows and wipe over your heads and wash your feet to the ankles. And if you are in a state of janabah, then purify yourselves. But if you are ill or on a journey or one of you comes from the place of relieving himself or you have contacted women and do not find water, then seek clean earth and wipe over your faces and hands with it. Allah does not intend to make difficulty for you, but He intends to purify you and complete His favor upon you that you may be grateful.  

O you who believe, when you stand up, that is, when you intend to go, to pray, and you are in ˹a state of˺ ritual impurity, wash your faces, and your hands up to the elbows, that is, including them ˹the elbows˺, as is clarified in the Sunna; and wipe your heads (the bā’ in bi-ru’ūsikum is for ‘adherence’), that is to say, wipe over ˹the head˺ adhering ˹the hand˺ closely, without ˹excessive˺ water pouring over; the noun ˹ra’s, ‘head’˺ is generic, and so the minimum required to fulfil ˹the stipulation˺ is acceptable, which is the wiping of some of the hair, as al-Shāfi‘ī asserts); and your feet (read wa-arjulakum in the accusative as a supplement to aydīyakum; or wa-arjulikum in the genitive because of its adjacency to ˹the genitive˺ bi-ru’ūsikum), up to the ankles, that is, including them ˹the ankles˺, as is clarified in the Sunna, and they are the two protruding bones at the juncture of the legs and the feet. The interposing of the wiping of the head between ˹the mention of˺ the hands and the feet, which are washed, is intended to show the requirement of ˹a specific˺ order during the purification of these limbs, as al-Shāfi‘ī asserts. In addition, the requirement of making intention (niyya) in this ˹ablution˺, as in the other rituals of worship, is taken from the Sunna. If you are defiled, purify, wash, yourselves; but if you are sick, with an illness made worse by water, or on a journey, travelling, or if any of you comes from the privy, that is, ˹if˺ he has defecated, or you have touched women (as mentioned already in the verse in ˹sūrat˺ al-Nisā’ ˹Q. 4:43˺), and you cannot find water, having made the effort to look for it, then head for, seek, wholesome dust, that is, clean earth, and wipe your faces and your hands, including the elbows, with it, using two strikes (the bā’ of bi-wujūhikum, ‘your faces’, denotes ‘adherence’; it is explained in the Sunna that the requirement here is for the wiping to encompass the whole of these two parts. God does not desire to make any hardship for you, any constraint, in the obligations He has imposed on you with regard to ablution, washing and purification with dust; but He desires to purify you, of filth and sins, and that He may perfect His grace upon you, through Islam, by explaining the laws of the religion; so that you might give thanks, for His graces.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ فَاغْسِلُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُوا بِرُءُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِ ۚ وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ جُنُبًا فَاطَّهَّرُوا ۚ وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ مَرْضَىٰ أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاءَ أَحَدٌ مِنْكُمْ مِنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لَامَسْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوا مَاءً فَتَيَمَّمُوا صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُوا بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ مِنْهُ ۚ مَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيَجْعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ مِنْ حَرَجٍ وَلَٰكِنْ يُرِيدُ لِيُطَهِّرَكُمْ وَلِيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ  

{يا أيها الذين آمنوا إذا قمتم} أي أردتم القيام {إلى الصلاة} وأنتم محدثون {فاغسلوا وجوهكم وأيديكم إلى المرافق} أي معها كما بينته السنة {وامسحوا برؤوسكم} الباء للإلصاق أي ألصقوا المسح بها من غير إسالة ماء وهو اسم جنس فيكفي أقل ما يصدق عليه وهو مسح بعض شعرة وعليه الشافعي {وأرجلكم} بالنصب عطفا على أيديكم وبالجر على الجوار {إلى الكعبين} أي معهما كما بينته السنة وهما العظمان الناتئان في كل رجل عند مفصل الساق والقدم والفصل بين الأيدي والأرجل المغسولة بالرأس المسموح يفيد وجوب الترتيب في طهارة هذه الأعضاء وعليه الشافعي ويؤخذ من السنة وجوب النية فيه كغيره من العبادات {وإن كنتم جنبا فاطَّهروا} فاغتسلوا {وإن كنتم مرضى} مَرَضا يضره الماء {أو على سفر} أي مسافرين {أو جاء أحد منكم من الغائط} أي أحدث {أو لا مستم النساء} سبق مثله في آيه النساء {فلم تجدوا ماء} بعد طلبه {فتيمموا} اقصدوا {صعيدا طيَّبا} ترابا طاهرا {فامسحوا بوجوهكم وأيديكم} مع المرفقين {منه} بضربتين والباء للإلصاق وبينت السنة أن المراد استيعاب العضوين بالمسح {ما يريد الله ليجعل عليكم من حرج} ضيق بما فرض عليكم من الوضوء والغسل والتيمم {ولكن يريد ليطهركم} من الأحداث والذنوب {وليتم نعمته عليكم} بالإسلام ببيان شرائع الدين {لعلكم تشكرون} نعمه.

And remember the favor of Allah upon you and His covenant with which He bound you when you said, "We hear and we obey"; and fear Allah. Indeed, Allah is Knowing of that within the breasts.  

And remember God’s grace upon you, through Islam, and His covenant, His pledge, which He made, He bound, with you when you said, to the Prophet (s) upon pledging allegiance to him: ‘We hear and we obey’, all that you command and forbid, of what we love and what we despise. And fear God, in His covenant, lest you break it. Surely God knows what is in the breasts, that is, what is in the hearts ˹of people˺, all the more reason for ˹Him to have knowledge of˺ other things.

وَاذْكُرُوا نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَمِيثَاقَهُ الَّذِي وَاثَقَكُمْ بِهِ إِذْ قُلْتُمْ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ  

{واذكروا نعمة الله عليكم} بالإسلام {وميثاقه} عهده {الذي واثقكم به} عاهدكم عليه {إذ قلتم} للنبي ﷺ حين بايعتموه {سمعنا وأطعنا} في كل ما تأمر به وتنهى مما نحب ونكره {واتقوا الله} في ميثاقه أن تنقضوه {إن الله عليم بذات الصدور} بما في القلوب فبغيره أولى.

O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm for Allah, witnesses in justice, and do not let the hatred of a people prevent you from being just. Be just; that is nearer to righteousness. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is Acquainted with what you do.  

O you who believe, be upright before God, in ˹fulfilling˺ what is His due, witnesses in equity, in justice. Let not hatred of a people, namely, the disbelievers, cause you not to be just, and to harm them on account of their enmity; be just, towards both friend and foe, that, justice, is nearer to God-fearing. And fear God; surely God is aware of what you do, and will requite you for it.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُونُوا قَوَّامِينَ لِلَّهِ شُهَدَاءَ بِالْقِسْطِ ۖ وَلَا يَجْرِمَنَّكُمْ شَنَآنُ قَوْمٍ عَلَىٰ أَلَّا تَعْدِلُوا ۚ اعْدِلُوا هُوَ أَقْرَبُ لِلتَّقْوَىٰ ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ  

{يا أيها الذين آمنوا كونوا قوامين} قائمين {لله} بحقوقه {شهداء بالقسط} بالعدل {ولا يجرمنكم} يحملنكم {شنَآن} بغض {قوم} أي الكفار {على ألاَّ تعدلوا} فتنالوا منهم لعدواتهم {إعدلوا} في العدو والولي {هو} أي العدل {أقرب للتقوى واتقوا الله إن الله خبير بما تعملون} فيجازيكم به.

Allah has promised those who believe and do righteous deeds ˹that˺ for them there is forgiveness and great reward.  

God has promised those who believe and perform righteous deeds, an excellent promise: they shall have forgiveness and a great wage, that is, Paradise.

وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ ۙ لَهُمْ مَغْفِرَةٌ وَأَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ  

{وعد الله الذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات} وعدا حسنا {لهم مغفرة وأجر عظيم} هو الجنة.

But those who disbelieve and deny Our signs - those are the companions of Hellfire.  

And they who disbelieve and deny Our signs — they shall be the inhabitants of Hell-fire.

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَكَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا أُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ الْجَحِيمِ  

{والذين كفروا وكذبوا بآياتنا أولئك أصحاب الجحيم}.

O you who have believed, remember the favor of Allah upon you when a people determined to extend their hands ˹in aggression˺ against you, but He withheld their hands from you; and fear Allah. And upon Allah let the believers rely.  

O you who believe, remember God’s favour upon you, when a people, namely, Quraysh, purposed to extend their hands against you, in order to attack you, but He restrained their hands from you, and protected you from what they intended to do to you; and fear God; and in God let the believers put their trust.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ هَمَّ قَوْمٌ أَنْ يَبْسُطُوا إِلَيْكُمْ أَيْدِيَهُمْ فَكَفَّ أَيْدِيَهُمْ عَنْكُمْ ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ  

{يا أيها الذين آمنوا اذكروا نعمة الله عليكم إذ هَمَّ قوم} هم قريش {أن يبسطوا} يمدوا {إليكم أيديهم} ليفتكوا بكم {فكفَّ أيديهم عنكم} وعصمكم مما أرادوا بكم {واتقوا الله وعلى الله فليتوكل المؤمنون}.

And Allah had already taken a covenant from the Children of Israel, and We delegated from among them twelve leaders. And Allah said, "I am with you. If you establish prayer and give zakah and believe in My messengers and support them and loan Allah a goodly loan, I will surely remove from you your misdeeds and admit you to gardens beneath which rivers flow. But whoever of you disbelieves after that has certainly strayed from the soundness of the way."  

God had made a covenant with the Children of Israel, for what will be mentioned shortly, and We raised up (there is a shift of address away from the third ˹to the first˺ person) from among them twelve leaders, from each tribe one leader, to be responsible for his people’s fulfilment of the covenant, as a way of binding them ˹to it˺. And God said, to them: ‘I am with you, helping and assisting. Surely if (la-in, the lām is for oaths) you establish the prayer, and pay the alms, and believe in My messengers and succour them, help them, and lend to God a goodly loan, by expending in His way, I will absolve you of your evil deeds, and I will admit you to gardens underneath which rivers flow. So whoever of you disbelieves after that, covenant, surely he has strayed from the right way’, he has erred from the path to Paradise (al-sawā’ originally means ‘the middle way’). And they broke the covenant.

وَلَقَدْ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ مِيثَاقَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ وَبَعَثْنَا مِنْهُمُ اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ نَقِيبًا ۖ وَقَالَ اللَّهُ إِنِّي مَعَكُمْ ۖ لَئِنْ أَقَمْتُمُ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَيْتُمُ الزَّكَاةَ وَآمَنْتُمْ بِرُسُلِي وَعَزَّرْتُمُوهُمْ وَأَقْرَضْتُمُ اللَّهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا لَأُكَفِّرَنَّ عَنْكُمْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَلَأُدْخِلَنَّكُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۚ فَمَنْ كَفَرَ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ مِنْكُمْ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَاءَ السَّبِيلِ  

{ولقد أخذ الله ميثاق بني إسرائيل} بما يذكر بعد {وبعثنا} فيه التفات عن الغيبة أقمنا {منهم اثني عشر نقيبا} من كل سبط نقيب يكون كفيلا على قومه بالوفاء بالعهد توثقة عليهم {وقال} لهم {الله إنِّي معكم} بالعون والنصرة {لئن} لام قسم {أقمتم الصلاة وآتيتم الزكاة وآمنتم برسلي وعزَّرتموهم} نصرتموهم {وأقرضتم الله قرضا حسنا} بالإنفاق في سبيله {لأكفرنَّ عنكم سيئآتكم ولأدخلنكم جنات تجري من تحتها الأنهار فمن كفر بعد ذلك} الميثاق {منكم فقد ضل سواء السبيل} أخطأ طريق الحق. والسواء في الأصل الوسط فنقضوا الميثاق قال تعالى.

So for their breaking of the covenant We cursed them and made their hearts hard. They distort words from their ˹proper˺ usages and have forgotten a portion of that of which they were reminded. And you will still observe deceit among them, except a few of them. But pardon them and overlook ˹their misdeeds˺. Indeed, Allah loves the doers of good.  

God says: So because (bi-mā, the mā is extra) of their breaking their covenant, We cursed them, We removed them from Our mercy, and made their hearts hard, unyielding to the acceptance of faith; they pervert words, pertaining to the descriptions of Muhammad (s) in the Torah and other things, from their contexts, those in which God has placed them, in other words, they substitute them; and they have forgotten, they have abandoned, a portion, a part, of what they were reminded of, ˹of what˺ they were enjoined to in the Torah, in the way of following Muhammad (s); and you — addressing the Prophet (s) now — will never cease to discover some treachery on their part, in the way of breaking a covenant or some other matter, except for a few of them, who have submitted themselves ˹to Islam˺. Yet pardon them, and forgive; surely God loves the virtuous: this was abrogated by the ‘sword’ verse ˹Q. 9:5˺.

فَبِمَا نَقْضِهِمْ مِيثَاقَهُمْ لَعَنَّاهُمْ وَجَعَلْنَا قُلُوبَهُمْ قَاسِيَةً ۖ يُحَرِّفُونَ الْكَلِمَ عَنْ مَوَاضِعِهِ ۙ وَنَسُوا حَظًّا مِمَّا ذُكِّرُوا بِهِ ۚ وَلَا تَزَالُ تَطَّلِعُ عَلَىٰ خَائِنَةٍ مِنْهُمْ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِنْهُمْ ۖ فَاعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَاصْفَحْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ  

{فبما نقضهم} ما زائدة {ميثاقهم لعناهم} أبعدناهم عن رحمتنا {وجعلنا قلوبهم قاسية} لا تلين لقبول الإيمان {يحرِّفون الكلم} الذي في التوراة من نعت محمد ﷺ وغيره {عن مواضعه} التي وضعه الله عليها أي يبدلونه {ونسوا} تركوا {حظّاً} نصيبا {مما ذكروا} أمروا {به} في التوراة من اتباع محمد {ولا تزال} خطاب للنبي صلى الله علي وسلم {تطَّلع} تظهر {على خائنة} أي خيانة {منهم} بنقض العهد وغيره {إلا قليلا منهم} ممن أسلم {فاعف عنهم واصفح إن الله يحب المحسنين} وهذا منسوخ بآيه السيف.

And from those who say, "We are Christians" We took their covenant; but they forgot a portion of that of which they were reminded. So We caused among them animosity and hatred until the Day of Resurrection. And Allah is going to inform them about what they used to do.  

And with those who say ‘We are Christians’ (this is semantically connected to ˹what follows˺) We made a covenant, just as We did with the Children of Israel, the Jews, and they have forgotten a portion of that they were reminded of, in the Gospel, pertaining to faith and other matters, and they ˹too˺ broke the covenant. So We have stirred up, We have caused, among them enmity and hatred until the Day of Resurrection, on account of their schisms and differing whims, each sect charging the other with unbelief; and God will assuredly tell them, in the Hereafter, of what they wrought, and requite them for this.

وَمِنَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّا نَصَارَىٰ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَهُمْ فَنَسُوا حَظًّا مِمَّا ذُكِّرُوا بِهِ فَأَغْرَيْنَا بَيْنَهُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَاءَ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ ۚ وَسَوْفَ يُنَبِّئُهُمُ اللَّهُ بِمَا كَانُوا يَصْنَعُونَ  

{ومن الذين قالوا إنا نصارى} متعلق بقوله {أخذنا ميثاقهم} كما أخذنا على بني إسرائيل اليهود {فنسوا حظاً مما ذكِّروا به} في الإنجيل من الإيمان وغيره ونقضوا الميثاق {فأغرينا} أوقعنا {بينهم العداوة والبغضاء إلى يوم القيامة} بتفرقهم واختلاف أهوائهم فكل فرقة تكفر الأخرى {وسوف ينبئهم الله} في الآخرة {بما كانوا يصنعون} فيجازيهم عليه.

O People of the Scripture, there has come to you Our Messenger making clear to you much of what you used to conceal of the Scripture and overlooking much. There has come to you from Allah a light and a clear Book.  

O People of the Scripture, Jews and Christians, now there has come to you Our Messenger, Muhammad (s), making clear to you much of what you used to conceal of the Scripture, the Torah and the Gospel, such as the ‘stoning’ verse and the description ˹of the Prophet Muhammad (s)˺, and pardoning much, of it, which he does not reveal, since this would not be of any benefit, serving only to disgrace you. There has verily come to you from God a light, namely, the Prophet (s), and a Book, a Qur’ān, lucid, plain and manifest,

يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمْ كَثِيرًا مِمَّا كُنْتُمْ تُخْفُونَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَعْفُو عَنْ كَثِيرٍ ۚ قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُبِينٌ  

{يا أهل الكتاب} اليهود والنصارى {قد جاءكم رسولنا} محمد {يبين لكم كثيرا مما كنتم تخفون} تكتمون {من الكتاب} التوراة والإنجيل كآية الرجم وصفته {ويعفو عن كثير} من ذلك فلا يبينه إذا لم يكن فيه مصلحة إلا افتضاحكم {قد جاءكم من الله نورٌ} هو النبي ﷺ {وكتابٌ} قرآن {مبين} بين ظاهر.

By which Allah guides those who pursue His pleasure to the ways of peace and brings them out from darknesses into the light, by His permission, and guides them to a straight path.  

whereby, that is, the Book by which, God guides whoever follows His good pleasure, by believing, to the ways of peace, the paths of safety, and brings them forth from the shadows, ˹from˺ unbelief, into the light, ˹into˺ belief, by His leave, by His will, and He guides them to a straight path, the religion of Islam.

يَهْدِي بِهِ اللَّهُ مَنِ اتَّبَعَ رِضْوَانَهُ سُبُلَ السَّلَامِ وَيُخْرِجُهُمْ مِنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَيَهْدِيهِمْ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ  

{يهدي به} أي بالكتاب {الله من اتبع رضوانه} بأن آمن {سبل السلام} طرق السلامة {ويخرجهم من الظلمات} الكفر {إلى النور} الإيمان {بإذنه} بإرادته {ويهديهم إلى صراط مستقيم} دين الإسلام.

They have certainly disbelieved who say that Allah is Christ, the son of Mary. Say, "Then who could prevent Allah at all if He had intended to destroy Christ, the son of Mary, or his mother or everyone on the earth?" And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them. He creates what He wills, and Allah is over all things competent.  

They indeed are disbelievers those who say, ‘God is the Messiah, son of Mary’, insofar as they make him ˹Jesus˺ a god, and these were the Jacobites, a Christian sect. Say: ‘Who then can do anything, ˹who then can˺ defend, against, the chastisement of, God if He desires to destroy the Messiah, son of Mary, and his mother, and all those who are on earth?’, that is to say, none can do anything of the sort, since if Jesus were a god, he would be able to do so. And to God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them. He creates what He will. God has power over everything, which He wills.

لَقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ ۚ قُلْ فَمَنْ يَمْلِكُ مِنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئًا إِنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يُهْلِكَ الْمَسِيحَ ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ وَأُمَّهُ وَمَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا ۗ وَلِلَّهِ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا ۚ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ  

{لقد كفر الذين قالوا إن الله هو المسح ابن مريم} حيث جعلوه إلَها وهم اليعقوبية فرقة من النصارى {قل فمن يملك} أي يدفع {من} عذاب {الله شيئا إن أراد أن يُهلك المسيح ابن مريم وأمه ومن في الأرض جميعا} أي لا أحد يملك ذلك ولو كان المسيح إلَها لقدر عليه {ولله ملك السماوات والأرض وما بينهما يخلق ما يشاء والله على كل شيء} شاءه {قدير}.

But the Jews and the Christians say, "We are the children of Allah and His beloved." Say, "Then why does He punish you for your sins?" Rather, you are human beings from among those He has created. He forgives whom He wills, and He punishes whom He wills. And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them, and to Him is the ˹final˺ destination.  

The Jews and Christians, both of them, say: ‘We are the sons of God, that is, ˹we are˺ like his sons in terms of closeness and rank, and He is like a father to us in terms of compassion and care, and His beloved ones’. Say, to them, O Muhammad (s): ‘Why then does He chastise you for your sins?, if what you say is true. For, the father does not punish his son, nor the loving his beloved; but He has punished you, and therefore you are saying lies. Nay; you are mortals from among, all, those, mortals, He created, you shall be rewarded as they are rewarded and you shall be requited as they are requited. He forgives, him for, whom He wills, forgiveness, and He chastises, him for, whom He wills’, chastisement, and there can be no objection thereto. For to God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and of the earth, and all that is between them; to Him is the journey’s end, the ˹final˺ return.

وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ وَالنَّصَارَىٰ نَحْنُ أَبْنَاءُ اللَّهِ وَأَحِبَّاؤُهُ ۚ قُلْ فَلِمَ يُعَذِّبُكُمْ بِذُنُوبِكُمْ ۖ بَلْ أَنْتُمْ بَشَرٌ مِمَّنْ خَلَقَ ۚ يَغْفِرُ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۚ وَلِلَّهِ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا ۖ وَإِلَيْهِ الْمَصِيرُ  

{وقالت اليهود والنصارى} أي كل منهما {نحن أبناء الله} أي كأبنائه في القرب والمنزلة وهو كأبينا في الرحمة والشفقة {وأحباؤه قل} لهم يا محمد {فلم يعذبكم بذنوبكم} إن صدقتم في ذلك ولا يعذب الأب ولده ولا الحبيب حبيبه وقد عذبكم فأنتم كاذبون {بل أنتم بشر ممن} من جملة من {خلق} من البشر لكم ما لهم وعليكم ما عليهم {يغفر لمن يشاء} المغفرة له {ويعذب من يشاء} تعذيبه لا اعتراض عليه {ولله ملك السماوات والأرض وما بينهما وإليه المصير} المرجع.

O People of the Scripture, there has come to you Our Messenger to make clear to you ˹the religion˺ after a period ˹of suspension˺ of messengers, lest you say, "There came not to us any bringer of good tidings or a warner." But there has come to you a bringer of good tidings and a warner. And Allah is over all things competent.  

O People of the Scripture, there has verily come to you Our Messenger, Muhammad (s), making clear to you, the laws of religion, after an interval between the messengers, for there was no messenger between him and Jesus, an interval of 569 years; lest you should say, if you are punished: ‘There has not come to us any bearer of good tidings (min bashīr, the min is extra) nor any warner’. Indeed, there has come to you a bearer of good tidings and a warner, and so you shall have no excuse. God has power over all things, including punishing you for not following him ˹the Messenger˺.

يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمْ عَلَىٰ فَتْرَةٍ مِنَ الرُّسُلِ أَنْ تَقُولُوا مَا جَاءَنَا مِنْ بَشِيرٍ وَلَا نَذِيرٍ ۖ فَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ بَشِيرٌ وَنَذِيرٌ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ  

{يا أهل الكتاب قد جاءكم رسولنا} محمد {يبين لكم} شرائع الدين {على فترة} انقطاع {من الرسل} إذ لم يكن بينه وبين عيسى رسول ومدة ذلك خمسمائة وتسع وستون سنة لـ {أن} لا {تقولوا} إذا عذبتم {ما جاءنا من} زائدة {بشير ولا نذير فقد جاءكم بشير ونذير} فلا عذر لكم إذاً {والله على كل شيء قدير} ومنه تعذيبكم إن لم تتبعوه.

And ˹mention, O Muhammad˺, when Moses said to his people, "O my people, remember the favor of Allah upon you when He appointed among you prophets and made you possessors and gave you that which He had not given anyone among the worlds.  

And, mention, when Moses said to his people, ‘O my people, remember God’s favour to you, when He established among you, that is, from among you, prophets, and established you as kings, possessing servants and retinues, and gave you such as He had not given to any in all the worlds, in the way of manna and quails, the parting of the sea and other things.

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِ يَا قَوْمِ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ جَعَلَ فِيكُمْ أَنْبِيَاءَ وَجَعَلَكُمْ مُلُوكًا وَآتَاكُمْ مَا لَمْ يُؤْتِ أَحَدًا مِنَ الْعَالَمِينَ  

{و} اذكر {إذ قال موسى لقومه يا قوم اذكروا نعمة الله عليكم إذ جعل فيكم} أي منكم {أنبياء وجعلكم ملوكا} أصحاب خدم وحشم {وآتاكم ما لم يؤت أحدا من العالمين} من المن والسلوى وفلق البحر وغير ذلك.

O my people, enter the Holy Land which Allah has assigned to you and do not turn back ˹from fighting in Allah 's cause˺ and ˹thus˺ become losers."  

O my people, enter the Holy, the purified, Land which God has ordained for you, ˹which˺ He commanded you to enter, and this is Syria (al-shām), and do not turn back in flight, ˹do not˺ retreat in fear of the enemy, or you will end up as losers’, in your efforts.

يَا قَوْمِ ادْخُلُوا الْأَرْضَ الْمُقَدَّسَةَ الَّتِي كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ وَلَا تَرْتَدُّوا عَلَىٰ أَدْبَارِكُمْ فَتَنْقَلِبُوا خَاسِرِينَ  

{يا قوم ادخلوا الأرض المقدَّسة} المطهرة {التي كتب الله لكم} أمركم بدخولها وهي الشام {ولا ترتدُّوا على أدباركم} تنهزموا خوف العدو {فتنقلبوا خاسرين} في سعيكم.

They said, "O Moses, indeed within it is a people of tyrannical strength, and indeed, we will never enter it until they leave it; but if they leave it, then we will enter."  

They said, ‘O Moses, there are giants in it, those remaining of the people of ‘Ād, who were very tall and mighty; we will never enter it until they depart from it; if they depart from it then we will enter’, it.

قَالُوا يَا مُوسَىٰ إِنَّ فِيهَا قَوْمًا جَبَّارِينَ وَإِنَّا لَنْ نَدْخُلَهَا حَتَّىٰ يَخْرُجُوا مِنْهَا فَإِنْ يَخْرُجُوا مِنْهَا فَإِنَّا دَاخِلُونَ  

{قالوا يا موسى إن فيها قوما جبارين} من بقايا عاد طوالا ذي قوة {وإنا لن ندخلها حتى يخرجوا منها فإن يخرجوا منها فإنا داخلون} لها.

Said two men from those who feared ˹to disobey˺ upon whom Allah had bestowed favor, "Enter upon them through the gate, for when you have entered it, you will be predominant. And upon Allah rely, if you should be believers."  

There said, to them, two men of those who feared, contravening God’s command, and these were Joshua and Caleb — who were from among the leaders that Moses dispatched to bring back news of those giants — to whom God had been gracious, by making them virtuous, for they concealed what they had discovered about the giants, telling only Moses, unlike the other leaders, who divulged the news, and so the people became cowardly. ‘Enter against them by the gate!, the gate of the town, and have no fear of them, for they are bodies without hearts. For if you enter by it, you will be victorious: the two ˹Joshua and Caleb˺ said this because they were certain of God’s assistance and the fulfilment of His promise. Put your trust in God, if you are believers’.

قَالَ رَجُلَانِ مِنَ الَّذِينَ يَخَافُونَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمَا ادْخُلُوا عَلَيْهِمُ الْبَابَ فَإِذَا دَخَلْتُمُوهُ فَإِنَّكُمْ غَالِبُونَ ۚ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَتَوَكَّلُوا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ  

{قال} لهم {رجلان من الذين يخافون} مخالفة أمر الله وهما يوشع وكالب من النقباء الذين بعثهم موسى في كشف أحوال الجبابرة {أنعم الله عليهما} بالعصمة فكتما ما اطَّلعا عليه من حالهم إلا عن موسى بخلاف بقية النقباء فأفشوه فجبنوا {ادخلوا عليهم الباب} باب القرية ولا تخشوهم فإنهم أجساد بلا قلوب {فإذا دخلتموه فإنكم غالبون} قالا ذلك تيقناً بنصر الله وإنجاز وعده {وعلى الله فتوكلوا إن كنتم مؤمنين}.

They said, "O Moses, indeed we will not enter it, ever, as long as they are within it; so go, you and your Lord, and fight. Indeed, we are remaining right here."  

They said, ‘O Moses, we will never enter it so long as they are in it. So go forth, you and your Lord, and fight, them, we will be sitting here’, away from the fighting.

قَالُوا يَا مُوسَىٰ إِنَّا لَنْ نَدْخُلَهَا أَبَدًا مَا دَامُوا فِيهَا ۖ فَاذْهَبْ أَنْتَ وَرَبُّكَ فَقَاتِلَا إِنَّا هَاهُنَا قَاعِدُونَ  

{قالوا يا موسى إنا لن ندخلها أبدا ماداموا فيها فاذهب أنت وربُّك فقاتلا} هم {إنا ها هنا قاعدون} عن القتال.

˹Moses˺ said, "My Lord, indeed I do not possess except myself and my brother, so part us from the defiantly disobedient people."  

He, Moses, thereupon, said, ‘My Lord, I control none but myself and my brother, and I control no one else to be able to force them to obedience. So separate, distinguish, us from the wicked folk’.

قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي لَا أَمْلِكُ إِلَّا نَفْسِي وَأَخِي ۖ فَافْرُقْ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَ الْقَوْمِ الْفَاسِقِينَ  

{قال} موسى حينئذ {رب إني لا أملك إلا نفسي و} إلا {أخي} ولا أملك غيرهما فاجبرهم على الطاعة {فافرق} فافصل {بيننا وبين القوم الفاسقين}.

˹Allah˺ said, "Then indeed, it is forbidden to them for forty years ˹in which˺ they will wander throughout the land. So do not grieve over the defiantly disobedient people."  

He, God, exalted be He, said, to him: ‘Then it, the Holy Land, shall be forbidden them, to enter, for forty years; they shall wander lost, bewildered, in the land — according to Ibn ‘Abbās this ˹land˺ was about nine parasangs ˹sc. 30 miles˺; so do not grieve for the wicked folk’. It is reported that they would travel throughout the night earnestly, but in the morning would find themselves back where they had started. And they would travel all day, with the same result, until they all perished, except those under twenty years of age. It is said that they numbered 600,000. Moses and Aaron died in the wilderness, and this was a mercy for them, and a chastisement for those others. When Moses was on the verge of death, he asked his Lord to bring him close to the Holy Land, to within a stone’s throw, and He did, as related in hadīth. Joshua became a prophet sometime after his fortieth year and he was commanded to fight against the giants. So he sallied forth with those that remained by his side and he fought against them; it was a Friday and the sun stopped for him for an hour, until he had finished with fighting them. Ahmad ˹b. Hanbal˺ reported in his Musnad the ˹following˺ hadīth, ‘The sun was never detained for any human, except for Joshua during those days in which he marched towards the Holy House ˹of Jerusalem˺’.

قَالَ فَإِنَّهَا مُحَرَّمَةٌ عَلَيْهِمْ ۛ أَرْبَعِينَ سَنَةً ۛ يَتِيهُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ فَلَا تَأْسَ عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْفَاسِقِينَ  

(قال) تعالى له (فإنها) أي الأرض المقدسة (محرمة عليهم) أن يدخلوها (أربعين سنة يتيهون) يتحيرون (في الأرض) وهي تسعة فراسخ قاله ابن عباس (فلا تأس) تحزن (على القوم الفاسقين) روي أنهم كانوا يسيرون الليل جادين فإذا أصبحوا إذا هم في الموضع الذي ابتدأوا منه ويسيرون النهار كذلك حتى انقرضوا كلهم إلا من لم يبلغ العشرين، قيل: وكانوا ستمائة ألف ومات هارون وموسى في التيه وكان رحمة لهما وعذابا لأولئك وسأل موسى ربه عند موته أن يدنيه من الأرض المقدسة رمية بحجر فأدناه كما في الحديث، ونبئ يوشع بعد الأربعين وأمر بقتال الجبارين فسار بمن بقي معه وقاتلهم وكان يوم الجمعة ووقفت له الشمس ساعة حتى فرغ من قتالهم، وروى أحمد في مسنده حديث "" إن الشمس لم تحبس على بشر إلا ليوشع ليالي سار إلى بيت المقدس "".

And recite to them the story of Adam's two sons, in truth, when they both offered a sacrifice ˹to Allah˺, and it was accepted from one of them but was not accepted from the other. Said ˹the latter˺, "I will surely kill you." Said ˹the former˺, "Indeed, Allah only accepts from the righteous ˹who fear Him˺.  

And recite, O Muhammad (s), to them, your people, the story, the tale, of the two sons of Adam, Abel and Cain, truthfully (bi’l-haqq is semantically connected to utlu, ‘recite’), how they each offered a sacrifice, to God, which in Abel’s case was a ram, and in Cain’s, some green crops, and it was accepted from one of them, namely, from Abel, when a fire came down from the heaven and consumed his offering, and not accepted from the other, that is, from Cain, and so he became furious and kept secret his envy until Adam left on pilgrimage. He said, to him, ‘I will surely slay you,’, and the other said, ‘Why?’, to which the first replied, ‘Because only your offering was accepted’. The other said, ‘God accepts only from the God-fearing’.

وَاتْلُ عَلَيْهِمْ نَبَأَ ابْنَيْ آدَمَ بِالْحَقِّ إِذْ قَرَّبَا قُرْبَانًا فَتُقُبِّلَ مِنْ أَحَدِهِمَا وَلَمْ يُتَقَبَّلْ مِنَ الْآخَرِ قَالَ لَأَقْتُلَنَّكَ ۖ قَالَ إِنَّمَا يَتَقَبَّلُ اللَّهُ مِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ  

{واتل} يا محمد {عليهم} على قومك {نبأ} خبر {ابنيْ آدم} هابيل وقابيل {بالحق} متعلق بأُتل {إذ قرَّبا قربانا} إلى الله وهو كبش لهابيل وزرع لقابيل {فتُقبل من أحدهما} وهو هابيل بأن نزلت نار من السماء فأكلت قربانه {ولم يُتقبل من الآخر} وهو قابيل فغضب وأضمر الحسد في نفسه إلى أن حج آدم {قال} له {لأقتلنك} قال: لَم قال لتقبل قربانك دوني {قال إنما يتقبل الله من المتقين}.

If you should raise your hand against me to kill me - I shall not raise my hand against you to kill you. Indeed, I fear Allah, Lord of the worlds.  

‘Yet if (la-in, the lām is for oaths) you extend your hand against me to slay me, I will not extend my hand against you to slay you; I fear God, the Lord of the Worlds, in slaying you.

لَئِنْ بَسَطْتَ إِلَيَّ يَدَكَ لِتَقْتُلَنِي مَا أَنَا بِبَاسِطٍ يَدِيَ إِلَيْكَ لِأَقْتُلَكَ ۖ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللَّهَ رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ  

{لئن} لام قسم {بسطت} مددت {إلى يدك لتقتلني ما أنا بباسط يدي إليك لأقتلك إنِّي أخاف الله ربَّ العالمين} في قتلك.

Indeed I want you to obtain ˹thereby˺ my sin and your sin so you will be among the companions of the Fire. And that is the recompense of wrongdoers."  

I desire that you should end up with my sin, the sin of slaying me, and your own sin, the one that you had committed before, and so become an inhabitant of the Fire, whereas I do not want to end up with your sin if I were to slay you, and become one of them. God, exalted be He, says: that is the requital of the evildoers’.

إِنِّي أُرِيدُ أَنْ تَبُوءَ بِإِثْمِي وَإِثْمِكَ فَتَكُونَ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّارِ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ جَزَاءُ الظَّالِمِينَ  

{إني أريد أن تبوء} ترجع {بإثمي} بإثم قتلي {وإثمك} الذي ارتكبته من قبل {فتكون من أصحاب النار} ولا أريد أن أبوء بإثمك إذا قتلتك فأكون منهم، قال تعالى: {وذلك جزاء الظالمين}.

And his soul permitted to him the murder of his brother, so he killed him and became among the losers.  

Then his soul prompted him, it seduced him, to slay his brother, so he slew him and became one of the losers, by slaying him. And he did not know what to do with him, because he was the first of the Children of Adam to die on earth, and so he carried him on his back.

فَطَوَّعَتْ لَهُ نَفْسُهُ قَتْلَ أَخِيهِ فَقَتَلَهُ فَأَصْبَحَ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ  

{فطوَّعت} زينت {له نفسه قتل أخيه فقتله فأصبح} فصار {من الخاسرين} بقتله ولم يدرِ ما يصنع به لأنه أول ميت على وجه الأرض من بني آدم فحمله على ظهره.

Then Allah sent a crow searching in the ground to show him how to hide the disgrace of his brother. He said, "O woe to me! Have I failed to be like this crow and hide the body of my brother?" And he became of the regretful.  

Then God sent forth a raven, scratching into the earth, digging up the soil with its beak and with its legs and throwing it up over a dead raven next to it until it completely hid it, to show him how he might hide the nakedness, the carcass, of his brother. He said, ‘Woe to me! Am I not able to be as this raven, and so hide my brother’s nakedness?’ And he became one of the remorseful, for having carried him; he then dug ˹a hole˺ for him and covered him up.

فَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ غُرَابًا يَبْحَثُ فِي الْأَرْضِ لِيُرِيَهُ كَيْفَ يُوَارِي سَوْءَةَ أَخِيهِ ۚ قَالَ يَا وَيْلَتَىٰ أَعَجَزْتُ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِثْلَ هَٰذَا الْغُرَابِ فَأُوَارِيَ سَوْءَةَ أَخِي ۖ فَأَصْبَحَ مِنَ النَّادِمِينَ  

{فبعث الله غرابا يبحث في الأرض} ينبش التراب بمنقاره وبرجليه ويثيره على غراب ميت حتى واراه {ليريه كيف يواري} يستر {سوأة} جيفة {أخيه قال يا ويلتى أعجزت} عن {أن أكون مثل هذا الغراب فأواري سوأة أخي فأصبح من النادمين} على حمله وحفر له وواره.

Killing one person unjustly is like killing all of humanity; Saving one person is like saving the entire humanity


Because of that, We decreed upon the Children of Israel that whoever kills a soul unless for a soul or for corruption ˹done˺ in the land - it is as if he had slain mankind entirely. And whoever saves one - it is as if he had saved mankind entirely. And our messengers had certainly come to them with clear proofs. Then indeed many of them, ˹even˺ after that, throughout the land, were transgressors.  

Because of that, which Cain did, We decreed for the Children of Israel that whoever slays a soul for other than a soul, slain, or for, other than, corruption, committed, in the land, in the way of unbelief, fornication or waylaying and the like, it shall be as if he had slain mankind altogether; and whoever saves the life of one, by refraining from slaying, it shall be as if he had saved the life of all mankind — Ibn ‘Abbās said ˹that the above is meant˺ in the sense of violating and protecting its ˹a soul’s˺ sanctity ˹respectively˺. Our messengers have already come to them, that is, to the Children of Israel, with clear proofs, miracles, but after that many of them still commit excesses in the land, overstepping the bounds through disbelief, killing and the like.

مِنْ أَجْلِ ذَٰلِكَ كَتَبْنَا عَلَىٰ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَنَّهُ مَنْ قَتَلَ نَفْسًا بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ أَوْ فَسَادٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَتَلَ النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا وَمَنْ أَحْيَاهَا فَكَأَنَّمَا أَحْيَا النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا ۚ وَلَقَدْ جَاءَتْهُمْ رُسُلُنَا بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ ثُمَّ إِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِنْهُمْ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ فِي الْأَرْضِ لَمُسْرِفُونَ  

{من أجل ذلك} الذي فعله قابيل {كتبنا على بني إسرائيل أنه} أي الشأن {من قتل نفسا بغير نفس} قتلها {أو} بغير {فساد} أتاه {في الأرض} من كفر أو زنا أو قطع طريق أو نحوه {فكأنما قتل الناس جميعا ومن أحياها} بأن امتنع عن قتلها {فكأنما أحيا الناس جميعا} قال ابن عباس: من حيث انتهاك حرمتها وصونها {ولقد جاءتهم} أي بني إسرائيل {رسلنا بالبينات} المعجزات {ثم إن كثيرا منهم بعد ذلك في الأرض لمسرفون} مجاوزون الحد بالكفر والقتل وغير ذلك.

Indeed, the penalty for those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and strive upon earth ˹to cause˺ corruption is none but that they be killed or crucified or that their hands and feet be cut off from opposite sides or that they be exiled from the land. That is for them a disgrace in this world; and for them in the Hereafter is a great punishment,  

The following was revealed when the ‘Arniyyūn came to Medina suffering from some illness, and the Prophet (s) gave them permission to go and drink from the camels’ urine and milk. Once they felt well they slew the Prophet’s shepherd and stole the herd of camels: Truly the only requital of those who fight against God and His Messenger, by fighting against Muslims, and hasten about the earth to do corruption there, by waylaying, is that they shall be slaughtered, or crucified, or have their hands and feet cut off on opposite sides, that is, their right hands and left feet, or be banished from the land (the aw, ‘or’, is ˹used˺ to indicate the ˹separate˺ application of ˹each of˺ the cases ˹listed˺; thus, death is for those that have only killed; crucifixion is for those that have killed and stolen property; the cutting off ˹of limbs on opposite sides˺ is for those that have stolen property but have not killed; while banishment is for those that pose a threat — this was stated by Ibn ‘Abbās and is the opinion of al-Shāfi‘ī; the more sound of his ˹al-Shāfi‘ī’s˺ two opinions is that crucifixion should be for three days after ˹the˺ death ˹of the killer˺, or, it is also said, shortly before ˹he is killed˺; with banishment are included similar punishments, such as imprisonment and the like). That, mentioned requital, is a degradation, a humiliation, for them in this world; and in the Hereafter theirs will be a great chastisement, namely, the chastisement of the Fire.

إِنَّمَا جَزَاءُ الَّذِينَ يُحَارِبُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَسْعَوْنَ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَسَادًا أَنْ يُقَتَّلُوا أَوْ يُصَلَّبُوا أَوْ تُقَطَّعَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَرْجُلُهُمْ مِنْ خِلَافٍ أَوْ يُنْفَوْا مِنَ الْأَرْضِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ لَهُمْ خِزْيٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَلَهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ  

ونزل في العرنيين لما قدموا المدينة وهم مرضى فأذن لهم النبي ﷺ أن يخرجوا إلى الإبل ويشربوا من أبوالها وألبانها فلما صحوا قتلوا راعي النبي ﷺ واستاقوا الإبل {إنما جزاء الذين يحاربون الله ورسوله} بمحاربة المسلمين {ويسعون في الأرض فسادا} بقطع الطريق {أن يقتلوا أو يصلبوا أو تقطع أيديهم وأرجلهم من خلاف} أي أيديهم اليمنى واليسرى {أو يُنفوا من الأرض} أو لترتيب الأحوال فالقتل لمن قتل فقط والصلب لمن قتل وأخذ المال والقطع لمن أخذ المال ولم يقتل والنفي لمن أخاف فقط قاله ابن عباس وعليه الشافعي وأصح قوليه أن الصلب ثلاثا بعد القتل وقيل قبله قليلا ويلحق بالنفي ما أشبهه في التنكيل من الحبس وغيره {ذلك} الجزاء المذكور {لهم خزي} ذل {في الدنيا ولهم في الآخرة عذاب عظيم} هو عذاب النار.

Except for those who return ˹repenting˺ before you apprehend them. And know that Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.  

Except for such, warmongers and waylayers, as repent before you overpower them; for know that God is Forgiving, to them of what they have done, Merciful, to them. This ˹proviso˺ is expressed without any statement to the effect ‘do not submit them to prescribed legal punishment’, to point out that when such a person repents only God’s prescribed punishments (hudūd) — and not those deriving from the rights of human beings — are waived. This is how I see it. I do not know of any that have tackled this ˹topic˺, and God knows best. If, then, a person has killed and stolen property, he should be killed and have his limbs cut off ˹on opposite sides˺, but not crucified — this is the more sound of two opinions held by al-Shāfi‘ī. However, his repentance is of no avail, once he has been overpowered ˹by the authorities˺ — this is also the more sound of two opinions held by him.

إِلَّا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ تَقْدِرُوا عَلَيْهِمْ ۖ فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ  

{إلا الذين تابوا} من المحاربين والقطَّاع {من قبل أن تقدروا عليهم فاعلموا أن الله غفور} لهم ما أتوه {رحيم} بهم عبر بذلك دون فلا تحدوهم ليفيد أنه لا يسقط عنه بتوبته إلا حدود الله دون حقوق الآدميين كذا ظهر لي ولم أرَ من تعرض له والله أعلم فإذا قتل وأخذ المال يقتل ويقطع ولا يصلب وهو أصح قولي الشافعي ولا تفيد توبته بعد القدرة عليه شيئا وهو أصح قولي الشافعي ولا تفيد توبته بعد القدرة عليه شيئا وهو أصح قوليه أيضا.

O you who have believed, fear Allah and seek the means ˹of nearness˺ to Him and strive in His cause that you may succeed.  

O you who believe, fear God, fear His chastisement, by being obedient to Him, and seek the means to Him, that obedience which brings you closer to Him, and struggle in His way, in order to elevate His religion; so that you might prosper, triumph.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَابْتَغُوا إِلَيْهِ الْوَسِيلَةَ وَجَاهِدُوا فِي سَبِيلِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ  

{يا أيها الذين آمنوا اتقوا الله} خافوا عقابه بأن تطيعوه {وابتغوا} اطلبوا {إليه الوسيلة} ما يقربكم إليه من طاعته {وجاهدوا في سبيله} لإعلاء دينه {لعلكم تفلحون} تفوزون.

Indeed, those who disbelieve - if they should have all that is in the earth and the like of it with it by which to ransom themselves from the punishment of the Day of Resurrection, it will not be accepted from them, and for them is a painful punishment  

Truly, as for the disbelievers, if they possessed, definitely, all that is in the earth, and the like of it with it, by which to ransom themselves from the chastisement of the Day of Resurrection, it would not be accepted from them; theirs shall be a painful chastisement.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْ أَنَّ لَهُمْ مَا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا وَمِثْلَهُ مَعَهُ لِيَفْتَدُوا بِهِ مِنْ عَذَابِ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ مَا تُقُبِّلَ مِنْهُمْ ۖ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ  

{إن الذين كفروا لو} ثبت {أن لهم ما في الأرض جميعا ومثله معه ليفتدوا به من عذاب يوم القيامة ما تقبِّل منهم ولهم عذاب أليم}.

They will wish to get out of the Fire, but never are they to emerge therefrom, and for them is an enduring punishment.  

They will desire, they will wish, to exit from the Fire, but they will not exit from it; theirs shall be a lasting, a perpetual, chastisement.

يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يَخْرُجُوا مِنَ النَّارِ وَمَا هُمْ بِخَارِجِينَ مِنْهَا ۖ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُقِيمٌ  

{يريدون} يتمنَّون {أن يخرجوا من النار وما هم بخارجين منها ولهم عذاب مقيم} دائم.

˹As for˺ the thief, the male and the female, amputate their hands in recompense for what they committed as a deterrent ˹punishment˺ from Allah. And Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.  

And the thieving male and the thieving female (the definite article in both ˹nouns˺ relates to the subject ˹sc. wa’lladhī saraqa wa’llatī saraqat, ‘And the male who thieves and the female who thieves’˺; because this ˹clause˺ resembles a conditional statement ˹sc. ‘if he thieves, if she thieves’ etc.˺ the fā’ has been included in the predicate ˹fa’qta‘ū, ‘then cut off’˺) cut off their hands, that is, the right hand of each of the two from the wristbone; it is explained in the Sunna that the amputation applies to ˹the stealing of˺ a quarter of a dinar and upwards, and if the person were to re-offend, the left foot should then be amputated from the ankle, and then ˹on subsequent re-offending˺ the left hand ˹is amputated˺, followed by the right foot, after which discretionary punishment is applied; as a requital (jazā’an is in the accusative because it is a verbal noun) for what they have earned, and an exemplary punishment, for both of them, from God; God is Mighty, His way will prevail, Wise, in His creation.

وَالسَّارِقُ وَالسَّارِقَةُ فَاقْطَعُوا أَيْدِيَهُمَا جَزَاءً بِمَا كَسَبَا نَكَالًا مِنَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ  

{والسارق والسارقة} أل فيهما موصولة مبتدأ ولشبهه بالشرط دخلت الفاء في خبره وهو {فاقطعوا أيديهما} أي يمين كل منهما من الكوع وبينت السنة أن يقطع فيه ربع دينار فصاعدا وأنه إذا عاد قطعت رجله اليسرى من مفصل القدم ثم اليد اليسرى ثم الرجل اليمنى وبعد ذلك يعزر {جزاء} نصب على المصدر {بما كسبا نكالا} عقوبة لهما {من الله والله عزيز} غالب على أمره {حكيم} في خلفه.

But whoever repents after his wrongdoing and reforms, indeed, Allah will turn to him in forgiveness. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.  

But whoever repents after his evildoing, refrains from theft, and amends, his actions, God will relent to him. God is indeed Forgiving, Merciful, in expressing what has been stated. However, the rights of the victim to have the penalty of amputation carried out and his property restored are not ˹automatically˺ forgone after repentance. In fact, as is clarified in the Sunna, only if he is pardoned before being taken to the Imam is the ˹punishment of˺ amputation waived, and al-Shāfi‘ī is of this opinion.

فَمَنْ تَابَ مِنْ بَعْدِ ظُلْمِهِ وَأَصْلَحَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ يَتُوبُ عَلَيْهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ  

{فمن تاب من بعد ظلمه} رجع عن السرقة {وأصلح} عمله {فإن الله يتوب عليه إن الله غفور رحيم} في التعبير بهذا ما تقدم فلا يسقط بتوبته حق الآدمي من القطع ورد المال نعم بيَّنت السنة أنه إن عفا عنه قبل الرفع إلى الإمام سقط القطع وعليه الشافعي.

Do you not know that to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth? He punishes whom He wills and forgives whom He wills, and Allah is over all things competent.  

Do you not know (the interrogative here is meant as an affirmative) that to God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth? He chastises, him for, whom He wills, chastisement for, and forgives, him for, whom He wills, forgiveness, and God has power over all things, including chastising and forgiving.

أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ يُعَذِّبُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَغْفِرُ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ  

{ألم تعلم} الإستفهام فيه للتقرير {أن الله له ملك السماوات والأرض يعذَّب من يشاء} تعذيبه {ويغفر لمن يشاء} المغفرة له {والله على كل شيء قدير} ومنه التعذيب والمغفرة.

O Messenger, let them not grieve you who hasten into disbelief of those who say, "We believe" with their mouths, but their hearts believe not, and from among the Jews. ˹They are˺ avid listeners to falsehood, listening to another people who have not come to you. They distort words beyond their ˹proper˺ usages, saying "If you are given this, take it; but if you are not given it, then beware." But he for whom Allah intends fitnah - never will you possess ˹power to do˺ for him a thing against Allah. Those are the ones for whom Allah does not intend to purify their hearts. For them in this world is disgrace, and for them in the Hereafter is a great punishment.  

O Messenger, let them not grieve you, the actions of, those who vie with one another in disbelief, falling headlong into it, in other words, they ˹who˺ manifest it at every opportunity, of (min here is explicative) such as say with their mouths, with their tongues (bi-alsinatihim is semantically connected to qālū, ‘˹such˺ as say’), ‘We believe’ but their hearts do not believe, and these are the hypocrites; and from among those of Jewry, there is a folk, who listen to calumny, fabricated by their rabbis, listening acceptingly, listening to, you, on behalf of some, other folk, from among the Jews, who have not come to you: these were the inhabitants of Khaybar, among whom two married persons committed adultery, but whom they did not want to stone. And so they dispatched ˹men from˺ Qurayza to ask the Prophet (s) about the ruling concerning the two; perverting words, that are in the Torah, such as the ‘stoning’ verse, from their contexts, ˹the contexts˺ in which God had placed them, that is to say, substituting them, saying, to the ones they dispatched: ‘If you are given this, distorted ruling, that is, flogging, which Muhammad (s) has pronounced for you as a ruling, then take it, accept it; but if you are not given it, and he pronounces some other ruling for you, then beware!’, of accepting it! Whomever God desires to try, to lead astray, you cannot avail him anything against God, by preventing such ˹a trial˺. Those are they whose hearts God did not desire to purify, of unbelief, for had He desired it, you would have ˹been able to do something for them˺; theirs shall be degradation in this world, humiliation, by being disgraced and subjected to the jizya, and in the Hereafter theirs shall be a great chastisement.

يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ لَا يَحْزُنْكَ الَّذِينَ يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْكُفْرِ مِنَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا آمَنَّا بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَلَمْ تُؤْمِنْ قُلُوبُهُمْ ۛ وَمِنَ الَّذِينَ هَادُوا ۛ سَمَّاعُونَ لِلْكَذِبِ سَمَّاعُونَ لِقَوْمٍ آخَرِينَ لَمْ يَأْتُوكَ ۖ يُحَرِّفُونَ الْكَلِمَ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَوَاضِعِهِ ۖ يَقُولُونَ إِنْ أُوتِيتُمْ هَٰذَا فَخُذُوهُ وَإِنْ لَمْ تُؤْتَوْهُ فَاحْذَرُوا ۚ وَمَنْ يُرِدِ اللَّهُ فِتْنَتَهُ فَلَنْ تَمْلِكَ لَهُ مِنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئًا ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُرِدِ اللَّهُ أَنْ يُطَهِّرَ قُلُوبَهُمْ ۚ لَهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا خِزْيٌ ۖ وَلَهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ  

{يا أيها الرسول لا يَحزنك} صنع {الذين يسارعون في الكفر} يقعون فيه بسرعة أي يظهرونه إذا وجدوا فرصة {من} للبيان {الذين قالوا آمنا بأفوههم} بألسنتهم متعلق بقالوا {ولم تؤمن قلوبهم} وهم المنافقون {ومن الذين هادوا} قوم {سماعون للكذب} الذي افترته أحبارهم سماع قبول {سماعون} منك {لقوم} لأجل قوم {آخرين} من اليهود {لم يأتوك} وهم أهل خيبر زنى فيهم محصنان فكرهوا رجمهما فبعثوا قريظة ليسألوا النبي ﷺ عن حكمهما {يحرفون الكلم} الذي في التوراة كآية الرجم {من بعد مواضعه} التي وضعه الله عليها أي يبدِّلونه {يقولون} لمن أرسلوهم {إن أُوتيتم هذا} الحكم المحرف أي الجلد الذي أفتاكم به محمد {فخذوه} فاقبلوه {وإن لم تؤتوه} بل أفتاكم بخلافه {فاحذروا} أن تقبلوه {ومن يرد الله فتنته} إضلاله {فلن تملك له من الله شيئا} في دفعها {أولئك الذين لم يرد الله أن يطهر قلوبهم} من الكفر ولو أراده لكان {لهم في الدنيا خزي} ذل بالفضيحة والجزية {ولهم في الآخرة عذاب عظيم}.

˹They are˺ avid listeners to falsehood, devourers of ˹what is˺ unlawful. So if they come to you, ˹O Muhammad˺, judge between them or turn away from them. And if you turn away from them - never will they harm you at all. And if you judge, judge between them with justice. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly.  

They are, listeners to calumny and consumers of unlawful gain (read suhut or suht), that which is illicit, such as bribes. If they come to you, to judge between them, then judge between them or turn away from them: the ˹second˺ option given here was abrogated by His saying, So judge between them ˹to the end of˺ the verse ˹Q. 5:48˺. Therefore, we ˹Muslims˺ are obliged to judge between them if they request arbitration before us — and this is the more sound of al-Shāfi‘ī’s two opinions. If their request for arbitration involves a Muslim, however, then we are obliged to judge according to the consensus ˹of legal scholars and not just alShāfi‘ī˺); if you turn away from them, they cannot harm you at all; and if you judge, between them, then judge justly between them; God loves the just, those that judge fairly, meaning that He will reward them.

سَمَّاعُونَ لِلْكَذِبِ أَكَّالُونَ لِلسُّحْتِ ۚ فَإِنْ جَاءُوكَ فَاحْكُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ أَوْ أَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ ۖ وَإِنْ تُعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ فَلَنْ يَضُرُّوكَ شَيْئًا ۖ وَإِنْ حَكَمْتَ فَاحْكُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْقِسْطِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ  

هم {سماعون للكذب أكالون للسُّحُت} بضم الحاء وسكونها أي الحرام كالرشا {فإن جاؤك} لتحكم بينهم {فاحكم بينهم أو أعرض عنهم} هذا التخيير منسوخ بقوله تعالى (وأن احكم بينهم) الآية فيجب الحكم بينهم إذا ترافعوا إلينا وهو أصح قولي الشافعي فلو ترافعوا إلينا مع مسلم وجب إجماعا {وإن تعرض عنهم فلن يضروك شيئا وإن حكمت} بينهم {فاحكم بينهم بالقسط} بالعدل {إن الله يحب المقسطين} العادلين في الحكم أي يثيبهم.

But how is it that they come to you for judgement while they have the Torah, in which is the judgement of Allah? Then they turn away, ˹even˺ after that; but those are not ˹in fact˺ believers.  

But how is it that they make you their judge when they have the Torah, wherein is God’s judgement, of stoning: the interrogative here is for ˹provoking˺ amazement, in other words, they were not seeking thereby ˹by making you their judge˺ to discover the truth but a lighter punishment for them; and then they turn away, ˹and then˺ they reject your ruling of stoning, which accords with what is in their Scripture, after that, request ˹to you˺ for arbitration? Such are not believers.

وَكَيْفَ يُحَكِّمُونَكَ وَعِنْدَهُمُ التَّوْرَاةُ فِيهَا حُكْمُ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يَتَوَلَّوْنَ مِنْ بَعْدِ ذَٰلِكَ ۚ وَمَا أُولَٰئِكَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ  

{وكيف يحكِّمونك وعندهم التوراة فيها حكم الله} بالرجم استفهام تعجب أي لم يقصدوا بذلك معرفة الحق بل ما هو أهون عليهم {ثم يتولَّون} يعرضون عن حكمك بالرجم الموافق لكتابهم {من بعد ذلك} التحكيم {وما أولئك بالمؤمنين}.

Indeed, We sent down the Torah, in which was guidance and light. The prophets who submitted ˹to Allah˺ judged by it for the Jews, as did the rabbis and scholars by that with which they were entrusted of the Scripture of Allah, and they were witnesses thereto. So do not fear the people but fear Me, and do not exchange My verses for a small price. And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed - then it is those who are the disbelievers.  

Surely We revealed the Torah, wherein is guidance, from error, and light, that is, an exposition of the rulings, by which the prophets, from the Children of Israel, who had submitted, ˹who˺ had been compliant before God, judged for those of Jewry, as did the rabbis, the scholars among them, and the priests, the jurists, according to, because of, that which they were bidden to observe, ˹that which˺ was entrusted to them, that is to say, ˹that which˺ God bid them to observe, of God’s Scripture, lest they change it, and were witnesses to, its truth. So do not fear men, O Jews, in disclosing what you have pertaining to the descriptions of Muhammad (s), the ‘stoning’ verse and otherwise; but fear Me, when you conceal it; and do not sell, do not exchange, My signs for a small price, of this world, which you take in return for concealing them. Whoever does not judge according to what God has revealed — such are the disbelievers, in it.

إِنَّا أَنْزَلْنَا التَّوْرَاةَ فِيهَا هُدًى وَنُورٌ ۚ يَحْكُمُ بِهَا النَّبِيُّونَ الَّذِينَ أَسْلَمُوا لِلَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالْأَحْبَارُ بِمَا اسْتُحْفِظُوا مِنْ كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَكَانُوا عَلَيْهِ شُهَدَاءَ ۚ فَلَا تَخْشَوُا النَّاسَ وَاخْشَوْنِ وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا بِآيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۚ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ  

{إنا أنزلنا التوراة فيها هدى} من الضلالة {ونورٌ} بيان للأحكام {يحكم بها النبيون} من بني إسرائيل {الذين أسلموا} انقادوا لله {للذين هادوا والربانيون} العلماء منهم {والأحبار} الفقهاء {بما} أي بسبب الذي {استحفظوا} استودعوه أي استحفظهم الله إياه {من كتاب الله} أن يبدلوه {وكانوا عليه شهداء} أنه حق {فلا تخشوا الناس} أيها اليهود في إظهار ما عندكم من نعت محمد ﷺ والرجم وغيرها {واخشوْن} في كتمانه {ولا تشتروا} تستبدلوا {بآياتي ثمنا قليلا} من الدنيا تأخذونه على كتمانها {ومن لم يحكم بما أنزل الله فأولئك هم الكافرون} به.

And We ordained for them therein a life for a life, an eye for an eye, a nose for a nose, an ear for an ear, a tooth for a tooth, and for wounds is legal retribution. But whoever gives ˹up his right as˺ charity, it is an expiation for him. And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed - then it is those who are the wrongdoers.  

And therein, in the Torah, We prescribed, We made obligatory, for them that a life, be slain in return, for a life, if it has slain one; and an eye, should be gouged out, for an eye, and a nose, is to be cut off, for a nose, and an ear, is to be amputated, for an ear, and a tooth, should be pulled out, for a tooth (a variant reading has the last four ˹nouns˺ in the nominative); and for wounds (read wa’l-jurūhu or wa’l-jurūha) retaliation, that is, the person is entitled to retaliate if this is feasible, as in the case of a hand or a leg; but in cases where one is not able to ˹retaliate˺, this is left to arbitration. Although this stipulation was prescribed for them, it is established in our Law; but whoever forgoes it, that is, retaliation, out of charity, able to restrain himself, then that shall be an expiation for him, of what he has done ˹of other sins˺. Whoever does not judge according to what God has revealed, in the matter of retaliation and otherwise, those are the evildoers.

وَكَتَبْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ فِيهَا أَنَّ النَّفْسَ بِالنَّفْسِ وَالْعَيْنَ بِالْعَيْنِ وَالْأَنْفَ بِالْأَنْفِ وَالْأُذُنَ بِالْأُذُنِ وَالسِّنَّ بِالسِّنِّ وَالْجُرُوحَ قِصَاصٌ ۚ فَمَنْ تَصَدَّقَ بِهِ فَهُوَ كَفَّارَةٌ لَهُ ۚ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ  

{وكتبنا} فرضنا {عليهم فيها} أي التوراة {أن النفس} تقتل {بالنفس} إذا قتلتها {والعين} تُفقأ {بالعين والأنف} يجُدع {بالأنف والأذن} تُقطع {بالأذن والسنَّ} تقلع {بالسنِّ} وفي قراءة بالرفع في الأربعة {والجروح} بالوجهين {قصاص} أي فيها إذا كاليد والرجل ونحو ذلك وما لا يمكن فيه الحكومة وهذا الحكم وإن كتب عليهم فهو مقرر في شرعنا {فمن تصدق به} أي القصاص بأن مكن عن نفسه {فهو كفارة له} لما أتاه {ومن لم يحكم بما أنزل الله} في القصاص وغيره {فأولئك هم الظالمون}.

And We sent, following in their footsteps, Jesus, the son of Mary, confirming that which came before him in the Torah; and We gave him the Gospel, in which was guidance and light and confirming that which preceded it of the Torah as guidance and instruction for the righteous.  

And We caused Jesus son of Mary to follow in their, that is, the prophets’, footsteps, confirming the Torah before him; and We gave to him the Gospel, wherein is guidance, from error, and light, an exposition of the rulings, confirming (musaddiqan is a circumstantial qualifier) the Torah before it, the rulings contained therein, and as a guidance and an admonition to the God-fearing.

وَقَفَّيْنَا عَلَىٰ آثَارِهِمْ بِعِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ مُصَدِّقًا لِمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ ۖ وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْإِنْجِيلَ فِيهِ هُدًى وَنُورٌ وَمُصَدِّقًا لِمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَهُدًى وَمَوْعِظَةً لِلْمُتَّقِينَ  

{وقفّينا} أتبعنا {على آثارهم} أي النبيين {بعيسى ابن مريم مصدِّقا لما بين يديه} قبله {من التوراة وآتيناه الإنجيل فيه هدى} من الضلالة {ونور} بيان للأحكام {ومصدِّقا} حال {لما بين يديه من التوراة} لما فيها من الأحكام {وهدى وموعظة للمتقين}.

And let the People of the Gospel judge by what Allah has revealed therein. And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed - then it is those who are the defiantly disobedient.  

We said: So let the People of the Gospel judge according to what God has revealed therein, of rulings (a variant reading of wa’l-yahkum, ‘let ˹them˺ judge’, is wa-li-yahkuma, making it a supplement to that which is governed by the previous verb ˹ātaynāhu, ‘We gave to him’˺). Whoever does not judge according to what God has revealed — those are the wicked.

وَلْيَحْكُمْ أَهْلُ الْإِنْجِيلِ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ ۚ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ  

{و} قلنا {لْيَحْكُمْ أهل الإنجيل بما أنزل الله فيه} من الأحكام وفي قراءة بنصب يحكم وكسر لامه عطفا على معمول آتيناه {ومن لم يحكم بما أنزل الله فأولئك هم الفاسقون}.

And We have revealed to you, ˹O Muhammad˺, the Book in truth, confirming that which preceded it of the Scripture and as a criterion over it. So judge between them by what Allah has revealed and do not follow their inclinations away from what has come to you of the truth. To each of you We prescribed a law and a method. Had Allah willed, He would have made you one nation ˹united in religion˺, but ˹He intended˺ to test you in what He has given you; so race to ˹all that is˺ good. To Allah is your return all together, and He will ˹then˺ inform you concerning that over which you used to differ.  

And We have revealed to you, O Muhammad (s), the Book, the Qur’ān, with the truth (bi’l-haqq is semantically connected to anzalnā, ‘We have revealed’) confirming the Book that was before it and watching over it, testifying ˹to it˺ — the ‘Book’ means the Scriptures. So judge between them, between the People of the Scripture, if they take their cases before you, according to what God has revealed, to you, and do not follow their whims, deviating, away from the truth that has come to you. To every one of you, O communities, We have appointed a divine law and a way, a clear path in religion, for them to proceed along. If God had willed, He would have made you one community, following one Law, but, He separated you one from the other, that He may try you in what He has given to you, of the differing Laws, in order to see who among you is obedient and who is disobedient. So vie with one another in good works, strive hastily thereunto; to God you shall all return, through resurrection, and He will then inform you of that in which you differed, in the matter of religion, and requite each of you according to his deeds.

وَأَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَمُهَيْمِنًا عَلَيْهِ ۖ فَاحْكُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ ۖ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ عَمَّا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ ۚ لِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مِنْكُمْ شِرْعَةً وَمِنْهَاجًا ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَجَعَلَكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَلَٰكِنْ لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِي مَا آتَاكُمْ ۖ فَاسْتَبِقُوا الْخَيْرَاتِ ۚ إِلَى اللَّهِ مَرْجِعُكُمْ جَمِيعًا فَيُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ  

{وأنزلنا إليك} يا محمد {الكتاب} القرآن {بالحق}: متعلق بأنزلنا {مصدِّقا لما بين يديه} قبله {من الكتاب ومهيمنا} شاهدا {عليه} والكتاب بمعنى الكتب {فاحكم بينهم} بين أهل الكتاب إذا ترافعوا إليك {بما أنزل الله} إليك {ولا تتبع أهواءهم} عادلا {عما جاءك من الحق لكل جعلنا منكم} أيها الأمم {شرعة} شريعة {ومنهاجا} طريقاً واضحاً في الدين يمشون عليه {ولو شاء الله لجعلكم أمة واحدة} على شريعة واحدة {ولكن} فرقكم فرقاً {ليبلوكم} ليختبركم {فيما آتاكم} من الشرائع المختلفة لينظر المطيع منكم والعاصي {فاستبقوا الخيرات} سارعوا إليها {إلى الله مرجعكم جميعا} بالبعث {فينبئكم بما كنتم فيه تختلفون} من أمر الدين ويجزي كلا منكم بعمله.

And judge, ˹O Muhammad˺, between them by what Allah has revealed and do not follow their inclinations and beware of them, lest they tempt you away from some of what Allah has revealed to you. And if they turn away - then know that Allah only intends to afflict them with some of their ˹own˺ sins. And indeed, many among the people are defiantly disobedient.  

And judge between them according to what God has revealed, and do not follow their whims, and beware of them lest they seduce you, ˹lest˺ they lead you astray, from part of what God has revealed to you. But if they turn away, from the judgement revealed, and desire some other, then know that God desires to smite them, with punishment in this world, for some of their sins, ˹those˺ which they have committed, among them, their turning away, and ˹that He desires˺ to requite them for all of their sins in the Hereafter; surely, many of mankind are wicked.

وَأَنِ احْكُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ وَاحْذَرْهُمْ أَنْ يَفْتِنُوكَ عَنْ بَعْضِ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ إِلَيْكَ ۖ فَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ أَنْ يُصِيبَهُمْ بِبَعْضِ ذُنُوبِهِمْ ۗ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِنَ النَّاسِ لَفَاسِقُونَ  

{وأن احكم بينهم بما أنزل الله ولا تتبع أهواءهم واحذرهم} {أن} لا {يفتنوك} يضلوك {عن بعض ما أنزل الله إليك فإن تولوا} عن الحكم المنزل وأرادوا غيره {فاعلم أنما يريد الله أن يصيبهم} بالعقوبة في الدنيا {ببعض ذنوبهم} التي أتوها ومنها التولي ويجازيهم على جميعها في الأخرى {وإن كثيرا من الناس لفاسقون}.

Then is it the judgement of ˹the time of˺ ignorance they desire? But who is better than Allah in judgement for a people who are certain ˹in faith˺.  

Do they desire (yabghūn, is also read tabghūn, ‘˹do˺ you desire?’), ˹do˺ they seek, the judgement of paganism, through their deceit and deviation when they turn away? (this is an interrogative meant as a disavowal). Yet who, that is, no one, is better in judgement than God for a people knowing, Him, with certainty? These ˹people˺ are singled out for mention because they are the ones who reflect.

أَفَحُكْمَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يَبْغُونَ ۚ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللَّهِ حُكْمًا لِقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ  

{أفحكم الجاهلية يبغون} بالياء والتاء يطلبون من المداهنة والميل إذا تولَّوا إستفهام إنكاري {ومن} أي لا أحد {أحسن من الله حُكما لقوم} عند قوم {يوقنون} به خصوا بالذكر لأنهم الذين يتدبرون.