5. Sūrat al-Māʾidah

٥۔ سُورَةُ المَائدة

5.1 Fulfill your obligations, promises and agreements. Cooperate in piety and not in transgression.

٥۔١ مقطع في سُورَةُ المَائدة

quran:5:1In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.

O you who have believed, fulfill ˹all˺ contracts. Lawful for you are the animals of grazing livestock except for that which is recited to you ˹in this Qur'an˺ - hunting not being permitted while you are in the state of ihram. Indeed, Allah ordains what He intends.  

O you who believe, fulfil your bonds, the covenants confirmed between you and God and ˹between you and other˺ people. Lawful to you is the beast of the flocks, camels, cattle, and sheep ˹and goats˺, to eat after slaughtering ˹them˺, except that which is now being recited to you, as forbidden in ˹the verse below˺ Forbidden to you are carrion…˹Q. 5:3˺; the exceptive clause here is a discontinuous one, but may also be continuous; the forbidding concerns that which has succumbed to death and the like; game not being lawful to you when you are on pilgrimage (hurum means muhrimūn; ghayra, ‘not’, is in the accusative as ˹it introduces˺ a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject of the pronoun lakum, ‘to you’). Verily, God decrees whatever He desires, in the way of making ˹things˺ lawful or otherwise, and there can be no objection thereto.
القرآن:٥:١بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَوْفُوا بِالْعُقُودِ ۚ أُحِلَّتْ لَكُمْ بَهِيمَةُ الْأَنْعَامِ إِلَّا مَا يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ غَيْرَ مُحِلِّي الصَّيْدِ وَأَنْتُمْ حُرُمٌ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَحْكُمُ مَا يُرِيدُ  

{يا أيها الذين آمنوا أوفوا بالعقود} العهود المؤكدة التي بينكم وبين الله والناس {أحلت لكم بهيمة الأنعام} الإبل والبقر والغنم أكلاً بعد الذبح {إلا ما يتلى عليكم} تحريمه في (حُرمت عليكم الميتة) الآية فالاستثناء منقطع ويجوز أن يكون متصلا والتحريم لما عرض من الموت ونحوه {غيرَ محلي الصيد وأنتم حرم} أي محرمون ونصب غير على الحال من ضمير لكم {إن الله يحكم ما يريد} من التحليل وغيره لا اعترض عليه.

O you who have believed, do not violate the rites of Allah or ˹the sanctity of˺ the sacred month or ˹neglect the marking of˺ the sacrificial animals and garlanding ˹them˺ or ˹violate the safety of˺ those coming to the Sacred House seeking bounty from their Lord and ˹His˺ approval. But when you come out of ihram, then ˹you may˺ hunt. And do not let the hatred of a people for having obstructed you from al-Masjid al-Haram lead you to transgress. And cooperate in righteousness and piety, but do not cooperate in sin and aggression. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is severe in penalty.  

O you who believe, do not profane God’s sacraments (sha‘ā’ir is the plural of sha‘īra), that is, the ˹ritual˺ ceremonies of the religion, by hunting ˹game˺ while you are on pilgrimage, nor the sacred month, by fighting in it, nor the offering, that is, the boon offered in the ˹Meccan˺ Sanctuary, by interfering with it, nor the garlands (qalā’id, is the plural of qilāda, and these, made from the trees around the Sanctuary, were placed around it ˹the offering˺ to protect it), in other words, do not interfere with these ˹offerings˺ or with those who place them; nor, violate the sanctity of, those repairing, those heading, to the Sacred House, by fighting them ˹who are˺, seeking bounty, provision, from their Lord, through commerce, and, His, beatitude, by resorting to Him, as they ˹the Meccans pagans˺ falsely claimed (this was abrogated by the barā’a verse ˹of sūrat al-Tawba, Q. 9:4˺). But when you are discharged, from pilgrimage inviolability, then hunt for game (a command denoting permission). And let not hatred (read shana’ānu or shan’ānu) of a people that, because ˹they˺, barred you from the Sacred Mosque cause you to commit aggression, against them by killing them or otherwise. Help one another to righteousness, by doing that to which you were enjoined, and piety, by refraining from what you have been forbidden; do not help one another (ta‘āwanū: one of the two original tā’ letters ˹in tata‘āwanū˺ has been omitted) to sin, acts of disobedience, and enmity, transgression of God’s bounds. And fear God, fear His punishment by being obedient to Him; surely God is severe in retribution, against those that oppose Him.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُحِلُّوا شَعَائِرَ اللَّهِ وَلَا الشَّهْرَ الْحَرَامَ وَلَا الْهَدْيَ وَلَا الْقَلَائِدَ وَلَا آمِّينَ الْبَيْتَ الْحَرَامَ يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَرِضْوَانًا ۚ وَإِذَا حَلَلْتُمْ فَاصْطَادُوا ۚ وَلَا يَجْرِمَنَّكُمْ شَنَآنُ قَوْمٍ أَنْ صَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ أَنْ تَعْتَدُوا ۘ وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَىٰ ۖ وَلَا تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ  

{يا أيها الذين آمنوا لا تحلوا شعائر الله} جمع شعيرة أي معالم دينه بالصيد في الإحرام {ولا الشهر الحرام} بالقتال فيه {ولا الهدْي} ما أهدى إلى الحرم من النِّعم بالتعرض له {ولا القلائد} جمع قلادة وهي ما كان يقلد به من شجر الحرم ليأمن أي فلا تتعرضوا لها ولا لأصحابها {ولا} تحلوا {آمِّين} قاصدين {البيت الحرام} بأن تقاتلوهم {يبتغون فضلا} رزقا {من ربهم} بالتجارة {ورضوانا} منه بقصده بزعمهم الفاسد وهذا منسوخ بآية براءة {وإذا حللتم} من الإحرام {فاصطادوا} أمر إباحة {ولا يجرمنَّكم} يكسبنكم {شنَآن} بفتح النون وسكونها بغض (قوم) لأجل {أن صدوكم عن المسجد الحرام أن تعتدوا} عليهم بالقتل وغيره {وتعاونوا على البرِّ} بفعل ما أمرتم به {والتقوى} بترك ما نهيتم عنه {ولا تعاونوا} فيه حذف إحدى التاءين في الأصل {على الإثم} المعاصي {والعدوان} التعدي في حدود الله {واتقوا الله} خافوا عقابه بأن تطيعوه {إن الله شديد العقاب} لمن خالفه.