7. Sūrat al-Aʾrāf

٧۔ سُورَةُ الأعرَاف

7.1 The Messengers as well as the people to whom they were sent shall be questioned on the Day of Judgment. The Scale of justice shall be established.

٧۔١ مقطع في سُورَةُ الأعرَاف

quran:7:1In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.

Alif, Lam, Meem, Sad.  

Alif Lām Mīm Sād: God knows best what He means by these ˹letters˺.
القرآن:٧:١بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ


{المص} الله أعلم بمراده بذلك.

˹This is˺ a Book revealed to you, ˹O Muhammad˺ - so let there not be in your breast distress therefrom - that you may warn thereby and as a reminder to the believers.  

This is, a Book that is revealed to you — addressing the Prophet (s) — so let there be no inhibition, ˹no˺ constraint, in your breast because of it, to convey it — for fear that you might be called a liar — that you may warn thereby (li-tundhira, ‘that you may warn’, is semantically connected to unzila, ‘is revealed’, that is to say, ‘˹it is revealed˺ for ˹the purposes of˺ warning’) and as a reminder for those who believe, in it.

كِتَابٌ أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ فَلَا يَكُنْ فِي صَدْرِكَ حَرَجٌ مِنْهُ لِتُنْذِرَ بِهِ وَذِكْرَىٰ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ  

هذا {كتاب أنزل إليك} خطاب للنبي ﷺ {فلا يكن في صدرك حرج} ضيق {منه} أن تبلغه مخافة أن تكذب {لتنذر} متعلق بأنزل أي للإنذار {به وذكرى} تذكرة {للمؤمنين} به.

Follow, ˹O mankind˺, what has been revealed to you from your Lord and do not follow other than Him any allies. Little do you remember.  

Say to them: Follow what has been revealed to you from your Lord, namely, the Qur’ān, and do not follow, ˹do not˺ take, beside Him, namely, God, in other words, other than Him, any patrons, obeying them in disobedience of Him, exalted be He. Little do you remember (read tadhakkarūn or yadhakkarūn, ‘˹little˺ are you or they admonished’; the original tā’ ˹of tatadhakkarūn˺ has been assimilated with the dhāl; a variant reading has tadhkurūn; the mā ˹of qalīlan mā, ‘little’˺ is extra, merely emphasising the ‘littleness’).

اتَّبِعُوا مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا مِنْ دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ ۗ قَلِيلًا مَا تَذَكَّرُونَ  

قل لهم {أتبعوا ما أنزل إليكم من ربكم} أي القرآن {ولا تتبعوا} تتخذوا {من دونه} أي الله أي غيره {أولياء} تطيعونهم من معصيته تعالى {قليلا ما تَذَّكَّرون} بالتاء والياء تتعظون وفيه إدغام التاء في الأصل في الذال، وفي قراءة بسكونها وما زائدة لتأكيد القلة.

And how many cities have We destroyed, and Our punishment came to them at night or while they were sleeping at noon.  

How many (kam is predicative and is the direct object ˹of the main verb, ahlaknāhā, ‘We have destroyed’˺) a city, meaning its inhabitants, have We destroyed, have We willed its destruction! So Our might, Our chastisement, came upon it at night or while they slept at noon (qā’ilūn: al-qaylūla is a rest taken halfway during the day, even if it does not involve sleep), in other words, sometimes it came upon it at night, and sometimes it came during the day.

وَكَمْ مِنْ قَرْيَةٍ أَهْلَكْنَاهَا فَجَاءَهَا بَأْسُنَا بَيَاتًا أَوْ هُمْ قَائِلُونَ  

{وكم} خبرية مفعول {من قرية} أريد أهلها {أهلكناها} أردنا إهلاكها {فجاءها بأسنا} عذابا {بياتا} ليلا {أو هم قائلون} نائمون بالظهيرة والقيلولة استراحة نصف النهار وإن لم يكن معها نوم أي مرة جاءها ليلا ومرَّة جاءها نهارا.

And their declaration when Our punishment came to them was only that they said, "Indeed, we were wrongdoers!"  

And their only plea, their ˹only˺ words, when Our might came upon them, was to say, ‘We were evildoers indeed’.

فَمَا كَانَ دَعْوَاهُمْ إِذْ جَاءَهُمْ بَأْسُنَا إِلَّا أَنْ قَالُوا إِنَّا كُنَّا ظَالِمِينَ  

{فما كان دعواهم} قولهم {إذ جاءهم بأسنا إلا أن قالوا إنا كنا ظالمين}.

Then We will surely question those to whom ˹a message˺ was sent, and We will surely question the messengers.  

Then verily We shall question those to whom the Message was sent, that is, ˹We shall question those˺ communities, about their response to the messengers, and to what extent they implemented that which was conveyed to them; and We shall question the messengers, about the conveying ˹of that Message˺.

فَلَنَسْأَلَنَّ الَّذِينَ أُرْسِلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَنَسْأَلَنَّ الْمُرْسَلِينَ  

{فلنسألن الذين أرسل إليهم} أي الأمم عن إجابتهم الرسل وعملهم {ولنسألن المرسلين} عن الإبلاغ.

Then We will surely relate ˹their deeds˺ to them with knowledge, and We were not ˹at all˺ absent.  

And We shall narrate to them with knowledge, We shall inform them, with ˹previous˺ knowledge, of what they did; for verily We were not absent, when the messengers were conveying ˹the Message˺, nor ˹were We absent˺ during the time of bygone communities and what they did.

فَلَنَقُصَّنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ بِعِلْمٍ ۖ وَمَا كُنَّا غَائِبِينَ  

{فلنقصَّن عليهم بعلم} لنخبرنهم عن علم بما فعلوه {وما كنا غائبين} عن إبلاغ الرسل والأمم الخالية فيما عملوا.

And the weighing ˹of deeds˺ that Day will be the truth. So those whose scales are heavy - it is they who will be the successful.  

The weighing, of deeds or of the scrolls of these ˹deeds˺ shall be — in a balance that has a tongue and two palms ˹as scales˺, as reported in a hadīth — on that day, that is, on the day of the questioning mentioned, namely, the Day of Resurrection, the true ˹weighing˺, the fair ˹weighing˺ (al-haqq, ‘the true’, is an adjectival qualification of al-wazn, ‘the weighing’). As for those whose scales are heavy, with good deeds, they are the successful, the triumphant.

وَالْوَزْنُ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْحَقُّ ۚ فَمَنْ ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ  

{والوزن} للأعمال أو لصحائفها بميزان له لسان وكتفان كما ورد في حديث كائن {يومئذ} أي يوم السؤال المذكور وهو يوم القيامة {الحق} العدل صفة الوزن {فمن ثقلت موازينه} بالحسنات {فأولئك هم المفلحون} الفائزون.

And those whose scales are light - they are the ones who will lose themselves for what injustice they were doing toward Our verses.  

And as for those whose scales are light, because of evil deeds, those are the ones who have lost their souls, by causing them to travel towards the Fire, because they mistreated, they ˹knowingly˺ denied, Our signs.

وَمَنْ خَفَّتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ بِمَا كَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا يَظْلِمُونَ  

{ومن خفّت موازينه} بالسيئات {فأولئك الذين خسروا أنفسهم} بتصييرها إلى النار {بما كانوا بآياتنا يظلمون} يجحدون.

And We have certainly established you upon the earth and made for you therein ways of livelihood. Little are you grateful.  

And We have given you power, O Children of Adam, in the earth, and have appointed for you therein livelihoods (ma‘āyish is the plural of ma‘īsha), that is, the means by which you ˹are able to˺ subsist; little (qalīlan mā: mā is to emphasise the ‘littleness’) thanks you show, for this.

وَلَقَدْ مَكَّنَّاكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَجَعَلْنَا لَكُمْ فِيهَا مَعَايِشَ ۗ قَلِيلًا مَا تَشْكُرُونَ  

{ولقد مكَّناكم} يا بني آدم {في الأرض وجعلنا لكم فيها معايش} بالياء أسبابا تعيشون بها جمع معيشة {قليلا ما} لتأكيد القلة {تشكرون} على ذلك.