9. Sūrat al-Tawbah

٩۔ سُورَةُ التوبَة

9.1 Proclamation to dissolve the "Treaty of Hudaybiyya.

٩۔١ مقطع في سُورَةُ التوبَة


˹This is a declaration of˺ disassociation, from Allah and His Messenger, to those with whom you had made a treaty among the polytheists.  

This is: A declaration of immunity from God and His Messenger to, reach, the idolaters with whom you made a pact, a pact for an indefinite period of time, or one for ˹a period of˺ less than, or more than, four months; the annulment of the pact shall be as God mentions in His saying:

بَرَآءَةٌ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦٓ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ عَٰهَدتُّم مِّنَ ٱلْمُشْرِكِينَ  

هذه {براءة من الله ورسوله} وأصله {إلى الذين عاهدتم من المشركين} عهدا مطلقا أو دون أربعة أشهر أو فوقها ونص العهد بما يذكر في قوله.

So travel freely, ˹O disbelievers˺, throughout the land ˹during˺ four months but know that you cannot cause failure to Allah and that Allah will disgrace the disbelievers.  

‘Journey freely, travel in security, O idolaters, in the land for four months — beginning with ˹the month of˺ Shawwāl, on the basis of what will come shortly — after which there will be no security for you, and know that you cannot escape God, that is, you shall ˹not˺ elude His punishment, and that God degrades the disbelievers’, humiliating them in this world by having them killed, and in the Hereafter, by ˹sending them to˺ the Fire.

فَسِيحُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ غَيْرُ مُعْجِزِي اللَّهِ ۙ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ مُخْزِي الْكَافِرِينَ  

{فسيحوا} سيروا آمنين أيها المشركون {في الأرض أربعة أشهر} أولها شوال بدليل ما سيأتي ولا أمان لكم بعدها {واعلموا أنكم غيرُ معجزي الله} أي فائتي عذابه {وأنَّ الله مخزي الكافرين} مذلُّهم في الدنيا بالقتل والأخرى بالنار.

And ˹it is˺ an announcement from Allah and His Messenger to the people on the day of the greater pilgrimage that Allah is disassociated from the disbelievers, and ˹so is˺ His Messenger. So if you repent, that is best for you; but if you turn away - then know that you will not cause failure to Allah. And give tidings to those who disbelieve of a painful punishment.  

A proclamation, a notification, from God and His Messenger to mankind on the day of the Greater Pilgrimage, the Day of Sacrifice (yawm al-nahr), that God is free from obligation to the idolaters, and their pacts, and ˹so is˺ His Messenger, also free from obligation: in that same year, year 9 ˹of the Hijra˺, the Prophet (s) sent forth ‘Alī, who proclaimed these verses on the Day of Sacrifice at Minā, and also ˹he proclaimed˺ that after this year no idolater will ˹be allowed to˺ make pilgrimage or circumambulate the House naked, as reported by al-Bukhārī. So, if you repent, of unbelief, it will be better for you; but if you turn away, from belief, then know that you cannot escape God. And give tidings to — inform — those who disbelieve of a painful chastisement, namely, ˹of˺ slaughter or capture in this world, and of ˹punishment in˺ the Fire in the Hereafter.

وَأَذَانٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ إِلَى النَّاسِ يَوْمَ الْحَجِّ الْأَكْبَرِ أَنَّ اللَّهَ بَرِيءٌ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ۙ وَرَسُولُهُ ۚ فَإِنْ تُبْتُمْ فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ ۖ وَإِنْ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ غَيْرُ مُعْجِزِي اللَّهِ ۗ وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ  

(وأذان) إعلام (من الله ورسوله إلى الناس يوم الحج الأكبر) يوم النحر (أن) أي بأن (الله برئ من المشركين) وعهودهم (ورسوله) برئ أيضا "" وقد بعث النبي ﷺ عليا من السنة وهي سنة تسع فأذن يوم النحر بمنى بهذه الآيات وأن لا يحج بعد العام مشرك ولا يطوف بالبيت عريان "" رواه البخاري (فإن تبتم) من الكفر (فهو خير لكم وإن توليتم) عن الإيمان (فاعلموا أنكم غير معجزي الله وبشر) أخبر (الذين كفروا بعذاب أليم) مؤلم وهو القتل والأسر في الدنيا والنار في الآخرة.

Excepted are those with whom you made a treaty among the polytheists and then they have not been deficient toward you in anything or supported anyone against you; so complete for them their treaty until their term ˹has ended˺. Indeed, Allah loves the righteous ˹who fear Him˺.  

Excepting those of the idolaters with whom you have made a pact, and who have not diminished ˹their commitment to˺ you in anyway, with regard to the terms of the pact, nor supported, assisted, anyone, from among the disbelievers, against you; ˹as for these˺ fulfil your pact with them until, the completion of, the term, to which you have agreed. Truly God loves those who fear ˹Him˺, by fulfilling pacts.

إِلَّا الَّذِينَ عَاهَدْتُمْ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَنْقُصُوكُمْ شَيْئًا وَلَمْ يُظَاهِرُوا عَلَيْكُمْ أَحَدًا فَأَتِمُّوا إِلَيْهِمْ عَهْدَهُمْ إِلَىٰ مُدَّتِهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَّقِينَ  

{إلا الذين عاهدتم من المشركين ثم لم ينقصوكم شيئا} من شروط العهد {ولم يظاهروا} يعاونوا {عليكم أحدا} من الكفار {فأتموا إليهم عهدهم إلى} انقضاء {مدتهم} التي عاهدتم عليها {إن الله يحب المتقين} بإتمام العهود.

And when the sacred months have passed, then kill the polytheists wherever you find them and capture them and besiege them and sit in wait for them at every place of ambush. But if they should repent, establish prayer, and give zakah, let them ˹go˺ on their way. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.  

Then, when the sacred months have passed — that is, ˹at˺ the end of the period of deferment — slay the idolaters wherever you find them, be it during a lawful ˹period˺ or a sacred ˹one˺, and take them, captive, and confine them, to castles and forts, until they have no choice except ˹being put to˺ death or ˹acceptance of˺ Islam; and lie in wait for them at every place of ambush, ˹at every˺ route that they use (kulla, ‘every’, is in the accusative because a ˹preceding˺ genitive-taking preposition has been removed). But if they repent, of unbelief, and establish prayer and pay the alms, then leave their way free, and do not interfere with them. God is Forgiving, Merciful, to those who repent.

فَإِذَا انْسَلَخَ الْأَشْهُرُ الْحُرُمُ فَاقْتُلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدْتُمُوهُمْ وَخُذُوهُمْ وَاحْصُرُوهُمْ وَاقْعُدُوا لَهُمْ كُلَّ مَرْصَدٍ ۚ فَإِنْ تَابُوا وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ فَخَلُّوا سَبِيلَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ  

{فإذا انسلخ} خرج {الأشهر الحرم} وهي آخر مدة التأجيل {فاقتلوا المشركين حيث وجدتموهم} في حل أو حرم {وخذوهم} بالأسر {واحصروهم} في القلاع والحصون حتى يضطروا إلى القتل أو الإسلام {واقعدوا لهم كلَّ مرصد} طريق يسلكونه ونصب كل على نزع الخافض {فإن تابوا} من الكفر {وأقاموا الصلاة وآتوا الزكاة فخلُّوا سبيلهم} ولا تتعرضوا لهم {إن الله غفور رحيم} لمن تاب.

And if any one of the polytheists seeks your protection, then grant him protection so that he may hear the words of Allah. Then deliver him to his place of safety. That is because they are a people who do not know.  

And if any one of the idolaters (ahadun, ‘one’, is in the nominative because of the ˹following˺ verb ˹istajāraka, ‘seeks your protection’˺ that validates it) seeks your protection, requests security from you against being killed, then grant him protection, provide security for him, so that he might hear the words of God — the Qur’ān — and afterward convey him to his place of security, that is, the dwelling-places of his folk, if he does not believe, so that he might reflect upon his situation — that, which is mentioned, is because they are a people who do not know, the religion of God, and so they must ˹be made to˺ hear the Qur’ān in order to ˹come to˺ know ˹religion˺.

وَإِنْ أَحَدٌ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ اسْتَجَارَكَ فَأَجِرْهُ حَتَّىٰ يَسْمَعَ كَلَامَ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ أَبْلِغْهُ مَأْمَنَهُ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ  

{وإن أحد من المشركين} مرفوع بفعل يفسره {استجارك} استأمنك من القتل {فأجره} أمِّنه {حتى يسمع كلام الله} القرآن {ثم أبلغه مأمنه} وهو دار قومه إن لم يؤمن لينظر في أمره {ذلك} المذكور {بأنهم قوم لا يعلمون} دين الله فلا بد لهم من سماع القرآن ليعلموا.