33. Sūrat al-Aḥzāb

٣٣۔ سُورَةُ الأحزَاب

33.14 Divorce when no waiting period for remarriage is required. Special permission for the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) to marry more than four wives. Restriction on the Prophet to marry or divorce one and marry another after this commandment.

٣٣۔١٤ مقطع في سُورَةُ الأحزَاب


O You who have believed, when you marry believing women and then divorce them before you have touched them, then there is not for you any waiting period to count concerning them. So provide for them and give them a gracious release.  

O you who believe if you marry believing women and then divorce them before you have touched them (read tamassūhunna or tumāsūhunna) that is, before you have copulated with them, there shall be no ˹waiting˺ period for you to reckon against them, ˹no˺ waiting period ˹needed to preclude pregnancy˺ or otherwise. But provide for them, give them what they can use for ˹securing˺ comforts, in cases where no dowry has been fixed for them; otherwise theirs is to retain half of what was fixed, but no more — this is what Ibn ‘Abbās said and it is ˹the opinion˺ followed by al-Shāfi‘ī’; and release them in a gracious manner, leave them be without ˹the intention to cause them any˺ harm.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نَكَحْتُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ ثُمَّ طَلَّقْتُمُوهُنَّ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ تَمَسُّوهُنَّ فَمَا لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ عِدَّةٍ تَعْتَدُّونَهَا ۖ فَمَتِّعُوهُنَّ وَسَرِّحُوهُنَّ سَرَاحًا جَمِيلًا  

{يا أيها الذين آمنوا إذا نكحتم المؤمنات ثم طلقتموهن من قبل أن تمسوهن} وفي قراءة تماسوهنَّ، أي تجامعوهنَّ {فما لكم عليهن من عدة تعتدونها} تحصونها بالأقراء وغيرها {فمتعوهن} أعطوهن ما يستمتعن به، أي إن لم يسم لهن أصدقة وإلا فلهن نصف المسمى فقط، قاله ابن عباس وعليه الشافعي {وسرّحوهن سراحا جميلا} خلوا سبيلهن من غير إضرار.

O Prophet, indeed We have made lawful to you your wives to whom you have given their due compensation and those your right hand possesses from what Allah has returned to you ˹of captives˺ and the daughters of your paternal uncles and the daughters of your paternal aunts and the daughters of your maternal uncles and the daughters of your maternal aunts who emigrated with you and a believing woman if she gives herself to the Prophet ˹and˺ if the Prophet wishes to marry her, ˹this is˺ only for you, excluding the ˹other˺ believers. We certainly know what We have made obligatory upon them concerning their wives and those their right hands possess, ˹but this is for you˺ in order that there will be upon you no discomfort. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful.  

O Prophet! Indeed We have made lawful for you your wives whom you have given their dowries and what your right hand owns, of those whom God has given you as spoils of war, from the disbelievers, ˹whom you have˺ taken captive, such as Safiyya and Juwayriyya, and the daughters of your paternal uncles and the daughters of your paternal aunts, and the daughters of your maternal uncles and the daughters of your maternal aunts who emigrated with you, as opposed to those who did not emigrate, and any believing woman if she gift herself ˹in marriage˺ to the Prophet and if the Prophet desire to take her in marriage, and ask for her hand in marriage without paying ˹her˺ a dowry — a privilege for you exclusively, not for the ˹rest of the˺ believers (nikāh, ‘marriage’, when expressed by the term hiba, ‘gift’, denotes ˹marriage˺ without dowry). Indeed We know what We have imposed upon them, namely, the believers, with respect to their wives, in the way of rulings, to the effect that they should not take more than four wives and should only marry with ˹the consent of˺ a legal guardian, ˹the presence of˺ witnesses and ˹the payment of˺ a dowry, and, with respect to, what their right hands own, of slavegirls, in the way of purchase or otherwise, so that the handmaiden be one lawful for her master, such as a slavegirl belonging to the People of the Scripture (kitābiyya), and not a Magian or an idolater, and that she should be ascertained ˹as not carrying child˺ with the necessary waiting period (istibrā’) before copulation; so that (li-kaylā is semantically connected to what came before ˹this last statement˺) there may be no ˹unnecessary˺ restriction for you, ˹no˺ constraint in marriage ˹for you˺. And God is Forgiving, of what is difficult to guard against, Merciful, in giving dispensations ˹allowing for latitude˺ in this respect.

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِنَّا أَحْلَلْنَا لَكَ أَزْوَاجَكَ اللَّاتِي آتَيْتَ أُجُورَهُنَّ وَمَا مَلَكَتْ يَمِينُكَ مِمَّا أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ وَبَنَاتِ عَمِّكَ وَبَنَاتِ عَمَّاتِكَ وَبَنَاتِ خَالِكَ وَبَنَاتِ خَالَاتِكَ اللَّاتِي هَاجَرْنَ مَعَكَ وَامْرَأَةً مُؤْمِنَةً إِنْ وَهَبَتْ نَفْسَهَا لِلنَّبِيِّ إِنْ أَرَادَ النَّبِيُّ أَنْ يَسْتَنْكِحَهَا خَالِصَةً لَكَ مِنْ دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۗ قَدْ عَلِمْنَا مَا فَرَضْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ فِي أَزْوَاجِهِمْ وَمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُمْ لِكَيْلَا يَكُونَ عَلَيْكَ حَرَجٌ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا  

يا أيها النبي إنا أحللنا لك أزواجك اللاتي آتيت أجورهن} مهورهن {وما ملكت يمينك مما أفاء الله عليك} من الكفار بالسبي كصفية وجويرية {وبنات عمك وبنات عماتك وبنات خالك وبنات خالاتك اللاتي هاجرن معك} بخلاف من لم يهاجرن {وامرأةً مؤمنة إن وهبت نفسها للنبي إن أراد النبي أن يستنكحها} يطلب نكاحها بغير صداق {خالصة لك من دون المؤمنين} النكاح بلفظ الهبة من غير صداق {قد علمنا ما فرضنا عليهم} أي المؤمنين {في أزواجهم} من الأحكام بأن لا يزيدوا على أربع نسوة ولا يتزوجوا إلا بوليٍّ وشهود ومهر {و} في {ما ملكت أيمانهم} من الإماء بشراء وغيره بأن تكون الأمة ممن تحل لمالكها كالكتابية بخلاف المجوسية والوثنية وأن تستبرأ قبل الوطء {لكيلا} متعلق بما قبل ذلك {يكون عليك حرج} ضيق في النكاح {وكان الله غفورا} فيما يَعسر التحرز عنه {رحيما} بالتوسعة في ذلك.

You, ˹O Muhammad˺, may put aside whom you will of them or take to yourself whom you will. And any that you desire of those ˹wives˺ from whom you had ˹temporarily˺ separated - there is no blame upon you ˹in returning her˺. That is more suitable that they should be content and not grieve and that they should be satisfied with what you have given them - all of them. And Allah knows what is in your hearts. And ever is Allah Knowing and Forbearing.  

You may put off (read turji’ or turjī), you may postpone ˹consorting with˺, whomever of them you wish, namely, of your wives, from their turn ˹for intimacy˺, and consort, embrace ˹in conjugality˺, whomever you wish, of them, and come unto her, and as for whomever you may desire of those whom you have set aside, from their share, you would not be at fault, to desire her and consort with her ˹again˺. He was given the choice in this respect after it had been obligatory for him to give each wife her ˹equal˺ share ˹of conjugality˺. That, freedom of choice, makes it likelier that they will be comforted and not grieve, and that they will be satisfied with what you give them, of what has been mentioned of your freedom to choose ˹whom to consort with˺, every one of them (kulluhunna emphasises the subject of ˹the verb˺ yardayna, ‘they will be satisfied’) will be well-pleased with what you give her. And God knows what is in your hearts, with respect to ˹your˺ women and ˹your˺ preferring some ˹to others˺. We have given you the freedom to choose ˹from among them˺ in order to make it easier for you to have what you desire. And God is Knower, of His creatures, Forbearing, in refraining from punishing them.

تُرْجِي مَنْ تَشَاءُ مِنْهُنَّ وَتُؤْوِي إِلَيْكَ مَنْ تَشَاءُ ۖ وَمَنِ ابْتَغَيْتَ مِمَّنْ عَزَلْتَ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكَ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ أَدْنَىٰ أَنْ تَقَرَّ أَعْيُنُهُنَّ وَلَا يَحْزَنَّ وَيَرْضَيْنَ بِمَا آتَيْتَهُنَّ كُلُّهُنَّ ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَلِيمًا  

{ترجئ} بالهمزة والياء بدله تؤخر {من تشاء منهنَّ} أي أزواجك عن نوبتها {وتؤوي} تضم {إليك من تشاء} منهن فتأتيها {ومن ابتغيت} طلبت {ممن عزلت} من القسمة {فلا جُناح عليك} في طلبها وضمها إليك خُيِّر في ذلك بعد أن كان القسم واجبا عليه {ذلك} التخيير {أدنى} أقرب إلى {أن تقرَّ أعينهنَّ ولا يحزن ويرضين بما آتيتهن} ما ذكر المخيّر فيه {كلهن} تأكيد للفاعل في يرضين {والله يعلم ما في قلوبكم} من أمر النساء والميل إلى بعضهن، وإنما خيَّرناك فيهن تيسيرا عليك في كل ما أردت {وكان الله عليما} بخلقه {حليما} عن عقابهم.

Not lawful to you, ˹O Muhammad˺, are ˹any additional˺ women after ˹this˺, nor ˹is it˺ for you to exchange them for ˹other˺ wives, even if their beauty were to please you, except what your right hand possesses. And ever is Allah, over all things, an Observer.  

Women are not lawful for you (read lā tahillu, or lā yahillu) beyond that, beyond the nine that have chosen you ˹as their husband˺, nor ˹is it lawful˺ for you to change (tabaddala: one of the two original tā’ letters ˹of tatabaddala˺ has been omitted) them for other wives, by divorcing them or some of them and marry in place of those whom you divorce, even though their beauty impress you, except those whom your right hand owns, of slavegirls, which is ˹in contrast˺ lawful for you. In addition to these ˹slavegirls˺ the Prophet (s) came to own Māriya ˹the Copt˺. She bore for him Ibrāhīm, who died during his lifetime. And God is Watcher over, Preserver ˹of˺, all things.

لَا يَحِلُّ لَكَ النِّسَاءُ مِنْ بَعْدُ وَلَا أَنْ تَبَدَّلَ بِهِنَّ مِنْ أَزْوَاجٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَكَ حُسْنُهُنَّ إِلَّا مَا مَلَكَتْ يَمِينُكَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ رَقِيبًا  

{لا تحل} بالتاء وبالياء {لك النساء من بعد} التسع اللاتي اخترنك {ولا أن تبدل} بترك إحدى التاءين في الأصل {بهن من أزواج} بأن تطلقهن أو بعضهن وتنكح بدل من طلقت {ولو أعجبك حسنهن إلا ما ملكت يمينك} من الإماء فتحل لك وقد ملك ﷺ بعدهن مارية وولدت له إبراهيم ومات في حياته {وكان الله على شيءٍ رقيبا} حفيظا.