18. Sūrat al-Kahf

١٨۔ سُورَةُ الكهْف

18.12 Fate of those who follow the Satan and commit shirk.

١٨۔١٢ مقطع في سُورَةُ الكهْف


And ˹mention˺ when We said to the angels, "Prostrate to Adam," and they prostrated, except for Iblees. He was of the jinn and departed from the command of his Lord. Then will you take him and his descendants as allies other than Me while they are enemies to you? Wretched it is for the wrongdoers as an exchange.  

And when (idh is dependent because it is governed by ˹an implicit˺ udhkur, ‘mention ˹when˺’) We said to the angels, ‘Prostrate before Adam’, a prostration involving a bow, not placing one’s forehead down ˹to the ground˺, as a greeting to him; and so they prostrated, ˹all˺ except Iblīs. He was ˹one˺ of the jinn — some say that these ˹creatures˺ are a species of angels, in which case the exceptive clause ˹illā Iblīs, ‘except Iblīs’˺ is a continuous one; but it is also said to be discontinuous, since Iblīs is ˹considered˺ the progenitor of ˹all˺ the jinn, having offspring who are mentioned alongside him further below; angels, on the other hand, do not have offspring; and he transgressed against his Lord’s command, that is to say, he rebelled against obedience to Him by refraining from ˹performing˺ the prostration. Will you then take him and his offspring — this address is to Adam and his progeny (the ˹final pronominal suffix˺ hā’ in both words refers to Iblīs) for your patrons instead of Me, obeying them, when they are an enemy to you?, in other words, ˹when they are your˺ enemies (wa-hum lakum ‘aduwwun is a circumstantial qualifier). How evil for the evildoers is that substitute!, of Iblīs and his offspring, in obeying them instead of obeying God.

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ كَانَ مِنَ الْجِنِّ فَفَسَقَ عَنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّهِ ۗ أَفَتَتَّخِذُونَهُ وَذُرِّيَّتَهُ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِنْ دُونِي وَهُمْ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ ۚ بِئْسَ لِلظَّالِمِينَ بَدَلًا  

{وإذ} منصوب باذكر {قلنا للملائكة اسجدوا لآدم} سجود انحناء لا وضع جبهة تحية له {فسجدوا إلا إبليس كان من الجن} قيل هم نوع من الملائكة فالاستثناء متصل وقيل هو منقطع وإبليس هو أبو الجن فله ذرية ذكرت معه بعد والملائكة لا ذرية لهم {ففسق عن أمر ربه} أي خرج عن طاعته بترك السجود {أفتتخذونه وذريته} الخطاب لآدم وذريته والهاء في الموضعين لإبليس {أولياء من دوني} تطيعونهم {وهم لكم عدو} أي أعداء حال {بئس للظالمين بدلاً} إبليس وذريته في إطاعتهم بدل إطاعة الله.

I did not make them witness to the creation of the heavens and the earth or to the creation of themselves, and I would not have taken the misguiders as assistants.  

I did not make them a witness, that is, Iblīs and his offspring, to the creation of the heavens and the earth, nor to their own creation, that is to say, I did not make any of them present at the ˹moment of the˺ creation of the other. Nor do I take misleaders, devils, as ˹My˺ support, as assistants in ˹the process of˺ creation, so why do you obey them?

مَا أَشْهَدْتُهُمْ خَلْقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَلَا خَلْقَ أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَمَا كُنْتُ مُتَّخِذَ الْمُضِلِّينَ عَضُدًا  

{ما أشهدتهم} أي إبليس وذريته {خلق السماوات والأرض ولا خلق أنفسهم} أي لم أحضر بعضهم خلق بعض {وما كنت متخذ المضلين} الشياطين {عضدا} أعوانا في الخلق، فكيف تطيعونهم.

And ˹warn of˺ the Day when He will say, "Call 'My partners' whom you claimed," and they will invoke them, but they will not respond to them. And We will put between them ˹a valley of˺ destruction.  

And the day (yawma is in the accusative because it is governed by ˹the implicit˺ udhkur, ‘mention’) when He will say (yaqūl, or ˹it may be˺ read as naqūl, ‘We will say’), ‘Call those partners of Mine, ˹those˺ graven images, as you used to claim’, let them intercede for you in the way you used to claim; and then they will call them, but they will not respond to their call, they will not answer them, and We shall set between them, between the graven images and those who worship them, a gulf of doom — a valley from among the valleys of Hell, in which they shall all be destroyed (the term ˹mawbiq˺ derives from ˹the verb˺ wabaqa meaning halaka, ‘he was destroyed’).

وَيَوْمَ يَقُولُ نَادُوا شُرَكَائِيَ الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ فَدَعَوْهُمْ فَلَمْ يَسْتَجِيبُوا لَهُمْ وَجَعَلْنَا بَيْنَهُمْ مَوْبِقًا  

{ويوم} منصوب باذكر {يقول} بالياء والنون {نادوا شركاءي} الأوثان {الذين زعمتم} ليشفعوا لكم بزعمكم {فدعوهم فلم يستجيبوا لهم} لم يجيبوهم {وجعلنا بينهم} بين الأوثان وعابديها {موبقا} واديا من أودية جهنم يهلكون فيه جميعا وهو من وبق بالفتح هلك.

And the criminals will see the Fire and will be certain that they are to fall therein. And they will not find from it a way elsewhere.  

And the criminals will behold the Fire and realise that, are certain that, they are about to fall into it. And they will find no means of avoiding it, of circumventing ˹it˺.

وَرَأَى الْمُجْرِمُونَ النَّارَ فَظَنُّوا أَنَّهُمْ مُوَاقِعُوهَا وَلَمْ يَجِدُوا عَنْهَا مَصْرِفًا  

{ورأى المجرمون النار فظنوا} أي أيقنوا {أنهم مواقعوها} أي واقعون فيها {ولم يجدوا عنها مَصرفا} معدلاً.