43. Sūrat al-Zukhruf

٤٣۔ سُورَةُ الزُّخْرُف

43.6 The Prophet Moses was sent to Pharaoh and his chiefs with signs but they ridiculed him and the signs; as a result, God drowned them all.

٤٣۔٦ مقطع في سُورَةُ الزُّخْرُف


And certainly did We send Moses with Our signs to Pharaoh and his establishment, and he said, "Indeed, I am the messenger of the Lord of the worlds."  

And verily We sent Moses with Our signs to Pharaoh and his council, namely, the Egyptians (al-Qibt), and he said, ‘I am indeed the messenger of the Lord of the Worlds’.

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا مُوسَىٰ بِآيَاتِنَا إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ وَمَلَئِهِ فَقَالَ إِنِّي رَسُولُ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ  

{ولقد أرسلنا موسى بآياتنا إلى فرعون وملئه} أي القبط {فقال إني رسول رب العالمين}.

But when he brought them Our signs, at once they laughed at them.  

But when he brought them Our signs, those proving his mission ˹from God˺, behold! they laughed at them.

فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ بِآيَاتِنَا إِذَا هُمْ مِنْهَا يَضْحَكُونَ  

{فلما جاءهم بآياتنا} الدالة على رسالته {إذا هم منها يضحكون}.

And We showed them not a sign except that it was greater than its sister, and We seized them with affliction that perhaps they might return ˹to faith˺.  

And We never showed them a sign, from among the signs of chastisement, such as the flood, which was when the waters ˹of the Nile˺ penetrated their dwellings and for seven days rose as high as their throats as they sat, or ˹the chastisement of˺ the locusts, but it was greater than the one before it, the one immediately preceding it. And We seized them with chastisement, that perhaps they might recant, their disbelief.

وَمَا نُرِيهِمْ مِنْ آيَةٍ إِلَّا هِيَ أَكْبَرُ مِنْ أُخْتِهَا ۖ وَأَخَذْنَاهُمْ بِالْعَذَابِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ  

{وما نريهم من آية} من آيات العذاب كالطوفان، وهو ماء دخل بيوتهم ووصل إلى حلوق الجالسين سبعة أيام، والجراد {إلا هي أكبر من أختها} قرينتها التي قبلها {وأخذناهم بالعذاب لعلهم يرجعون} عن الكفر.

And they said ˹to Moses˺, "O magician, invoke for us your Lord by what He has promised you. Indeed, we will be guided."  

And they said, to Moses, upon seeing the chastisement, ‘O sorcerer! — that is to say, ‘˹O˺ knowledgeable, perfect one’, since for them sorcery was an awesome ˹form of˺ knowledge — supplicate your Lord for us by the covenant that He has made with you, ˹to the effect˺ that He would relieve us from chastisement if we believe. Assuredly we will be guided’, that is to say, ˹we will become˺ believers.

وَقَالُوا يَا أَيُّهَ السَّاحِرُ ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ بِمَا عَهِدَ عِنْدَكَ إِنَّنَا لَمُهْتَدُونَ  

{وقالوا} لموسى لما رأوا العذاب {يا أيها الساحر} أي العالم الكامل لأن السحر عندهم علم عظيم {ادع لنا ربك بما عهد عندك} عن كشف العذاب عنا إن آمنا {إننا لمهتدون} أي مؤمنون.

But when We removed from them the affliction, at once they broke their word.  

But as soon as We relieved them, by the supplication of Moses, from the chastisement, behold! they had broken their pledge, reneging on their covenant and persisting in their disbelief.

فَلَمَّا كَشَفْنَا عَنْهُمُ الْعَذَابَ إِذَا هُمْ يَنْكُثُونَ  

{فلما كشفنا} بدعاء موسى {عنهم العذاب إذا هم ينكثون} ينقضون عهدهم ويصرون على كفرهم.

And Pharaoh called out among his people; he said, "O my people, does not the kingdom of Egypt belong to me, and these rivers flowing beneath me; then do you not see?  

And Pharaoh proclaimed, boastfully, among his people, ‘O my people, does not the kingdom of Egypt belong to me, and these rivers, of the Nile, flowing beneath me?, that is to say, beneath my palaces. Do you not perceive?, my magnificence.

وَنَادَىٰ فِرْعَوْنُ فِي قَوْمِهِ قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ أَلَيْسَ لِي مُلْكُ مِصْرَ وَهَٰذِهِ الْأَنْهَارُ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِي ۖ أَفَلَا تُبْصِرُونَ  

{ونادى فرعون} افتخاراً {في قومه قال يا قوم أليس لي ملك مصر وهذه الأنهار} من النيل {تجري من تحتي} أي تحت قصوري {أفلا تبصرون} عظمتي.

Or am I ˹not˺ better than this one who is insignificant and hardly makes himself clear?  

Or, do you perceive, in which case, am I not better than this one, namely, Moses, who is contemptible, feeble and lowly, and who can scarcely speak clearly?, ˹who can scarcely˺ articulate his speech, because of his lisp — which was the result of his ˹accidentally˺ placing a hot coal in his mouth when he was a child.

أَمْ أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِنْ هَٰذَا الَّذِي هُوَ مَهِينٌ وَلَا يَكَادُ يُبِينُ  

{أم} تبصرون، وحينئذ {أنا خير من هذا} أي موسى {الذي هو مهين} ضعيف حقير {و يكاد يُبين} يظهر كلامه للثغته بالجمرة التي تناولها في صغره.

Then why have there not been placed upon him bracelets of gold or come with him the angels in conjunction?"  

Why then, if he were being truthful, have bracelets of gold (asāwira, is the plural of aswira, which is the plural of siwār, similar ˹in pattern˺ to ˹ghurāb˺ aghriba) not been cast on him — as according to their custom with those whom they made their leaders, dressing them with gold bracelets and gold necklaces — or the angels not come with him one after the other?’, in succession, to testify to his truthfulness.

فَلَوْلَا أُلْقِيَ عَلَيْهِ أَسْوِرَةٌ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ أَوْ جَاءَ مَعَهُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ مُقْتَرِنِينَ  

{فلولا} هلا {ألقي عليه} إن كان صادقاً {أسورة من ذهب} جمع أسورة كأغربة جمع سوار كعادتهم فيمن يسودونه أن يلبسوه أسورة ذهب ويطوقونه طوق ذهب {أو جاء معه الملائكة مقترنين} متتابعين يشهدون بصدقه.

So he bluffed his people, and they obeyed him. Indeed, they were ˹themselves˺ a people defiantly disobedient ˹of Allah˺.  

Thus did he, Pharaoh, persuade, incite, his people and they obeyed him, in his wish that Moses be denied. They were truly an immoral folk.

فَاسْتَخَفَّ قَوْمَهُ فَأَطَاعُوهُ ۚ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا قَوْمًا فَاسِقِينَ  

{فاستخف} استفز فرعون {قومه فأطاعوه} فيما يريد من تكذيب موسى {إنهم كانوا قوماً فاسقين}.

And when they angered Us, We took retribution from them and drowned them all.  

So when they had angered Us, We took vengeance on them and drowned them all.

فَلَمَّا آسَفُونَا انْتَقَمْنَا مِنْهُمْ فَأَغْرَقْنَاهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ  

{فلما آسفونا} أغضبونا {انتقمنا منهم فأغرقناهم أجمعين}.

And We made them a precedent and an example for the later peoples.  

And We made them a thing past (salaf, is the plural of sālif, similar ˹in pattern˺ to khādim, khadam) that is to say, a precedent, as a lesson, and an example for others, after them, that they ˹posterity˺ might take their predicament as a lesson and so not engage in actions similar to theirs.

فَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ سَلَفًا وَمَثَلًا لِلْآخِرِينَ  

{فجعلناهم سلفاً} جمع سالف كخادم وخدم أي سابقين غيره {ومثلا للآخرين} بعدهم يتمثلون بحالهم فلا يقدمون على مثل أفعالهم.