41. Sūrat Fuṣṣilat

٤١۔ سُورَةُ فُصِّلَتْ

41.8 Repel evil with good

٤١۔٨ مقطع في سُورَةُ فُصِّلَتْ


And not equal are the good deed and the bad. Repel ˹evil˺ by that ˹deed˺ which is better; and thereupon the one whom between you and him is enmity ˹will become˺ as though he was a devoted friend.  

And they are not equal, the good deed and the evil deed, ˹even˺ with respect to their subdivisions, because any number of such ˹good deeds˺ are ˹always˺ above any number of the latter. Repel, the evil deed, with that, in other words, with that trait, which is better, such as ˹repelling˺ anger with endurance, ignorance with forbearance, and ˹the intention to inflict˺ harm with pardon, then, behold, he between whom and you there was enmity will be as though he were a dear friend, in other words, then your enemy will become like a close friend in terms of ˹his˺ affection ˹for you˺, if you act in such a way (alladhī, ‘he … whom’, is the subject; ka-annahu, ‘as though’, is the predicate; idhā is an adverbial particle for ˹expressing˺ the comparative import).

وَلَا تَسْتَوِي الْحَسَنَةُ وَلَا السَّيِّئَةُ ۚ ادْفَعْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ فَإِذَا الَّذِي بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَهُ عَدَاوَةٌ كَأَنَّهُ وَلِيٌّ حَمِيمٌ  

{ولا تستوي الحسنة ولا السيئة} في جزئياتهما بعضهما فوق بعض {ادفع} السيئة {بالتي} أي بالخصلة التي {هي أحسن} كالغضب بالصبر والجهل بالحلم والإساءة بالعفو {فإذا الذي بينك وبينه عداوة كأنه ولي حميم} أي فيصير عدوك كالصديق القريب في محبته إذا فعلت ذلك فالذي مبتدأ وكأنه الخبر وإذا ظرف لمعنى التشبيه.

But none is granted it except those who are patient, and none is granted it except one having a great portion ˹of good˺.  

But none is granted it, in other words, ˹none˺ is given that better trait, except those who are steadfast; and none is granted it except one ˹deserving˺ of a great reward.

وَمَا يُلَقَّاهَا إِلَّا الَّذِينَ صَبَرُوا وَمَا يُلَقَّاهَا إِلَّا ذُو حَظٍّ عَظِيمٍ  

{وما يلقاها} أي يؤتى الخصلة التي هي أحسن {إلا الذين صبروا وما يُلقاها إلا ذو حظ} ثواب {عظيم}.

And if there comes to you from Satan an evil suggestion, then seek refuge in Allah. Indeed, He is the Hearing, the Knowing.  

And if (wa-immā: here the nūn of the conditional particle in has been assimilated with the mā, which is extra) some temptation from Satan should provoke you, in other words, if some diversion should turn you away from that ˹better˺ trait and other good acts, then seek refuge in God (this is the response to the conditional ˹‘and if’˺; the response to the command clause is omitted, being ‘and He will ward it off from you’). Truly He is the Hearer, of what is said, the Knower, of what is done.

وَإِمَّا يَنْزَغَنَّكَ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ نَزْغٌ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ ۖ إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ  

{وإما} فيه إدغام نون إن الشرطية في ما الزائدة {ينزغنك من الشيطان نزغ} أي يصرفك عن الخصلة وغيرها من الخير صارف {فاستعذ بالله} جواب الشرط وجواب الأمر محذوف، أي يدفعه عنك {إنه هو السميع} للقول {العليم} بالفعل.