68. Sūrat al-Qalam

٦٨۔ سُورَةُ القَلَم

68.1 God has declared Muhammad (pbuh) to be of the highest moral character. Do not yield to any disbelieving oath-monger, slanderer or wicked person.

٦٨۔١ مقطع في سُورَةُ القَلـََم ١

quran:68:1In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.

Nun. By the pen and what they inscribe,  

Nūn, one of the letters of the alphabet: God knows best what He means by it. By the Pen, with which He has inscribed ˹the records of˺ all creatures in the Preserved Tablet, and what they inscribe, that is, the angels, of good and righteousness.
القرآن:٦٨:١بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

ن ۚ وَالْقَلَمِ وَمَا يَسْطُرُونَ  

{ن} أحد حروف الهجاء الله أعلم بمراده به {والقلم} الذي كتب به الكائنات في اللوح المحفوظ {وما يسطرون} أي الملائكة من الخير والصلاح.

You are not, ˹O Muhammad˺, by the favor of your Lord, a madman.  

You are not, O Muhammad (s), by the grace of your Lord, a madman, that is to say, madness is precluded in your case, on account of your Lord’s grace to you by way of ˹His assigning to you˺ prophethood and in other ways — this was a refutation of their saying that he was a madman.

مَا أَنْتَ بِنِعْمَةِ رَبِّكَ بِمَجْنُونٍ  

{ما أنت} يا محمد {بنعمة ربك بمجنون} أي انتفى الجنون عنك بسبب إنعام ربك عليك بالنبوة وغيرها وهذا رد لقولهم إنه مجنون.

And indeed, for you is a reward uninterrupted.  

And assuredly you will have an unfailing reward.

وَإِنَّ لَكَ لَأَجْرًا غَيْرَ مَمْنُونٍ  

{وإن لك لأجرا غير ممنون} مقطوع.

And indeed, you are of a great moral character.  

And assuredly you possess a magnificent nature, ˹a magnificent˺ religion.

وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلَىٰ خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ  

{وإنك لعلى خلق} دين {عظيم}.

So you will see and they will see  

Then you will see and they will see,

فَسَتُبْصِرُ وَيُبْصِرُونَ  

{فستبصر ويبصرون}.

Which of you is the afflicted ˹by a devil˺.  

which of you is demented (al-maftūn is a verbal noun, similar ˹in expressional form˺ to al-ma‘qūl, ‘intelligible’; al-futūn meaning al-junūn, ‘insanity’) in other words, is it ˹this insanity˺ in you or in them?

بِأَيْيِكُمُ الْمَفْتُونُ  

{بأيكم المفتون} مصدر كالمعقول، أي الفتون بمعنى الجنون، أي أبك أم بهم.

Indeed, your Lord is most knowing of who has gone astray from His way, and He is most knowing of the ˹rightly˺ guided.  

Assuredly your Lord knows best those who stray from His way, and He knows best those who are guided, to Him.

إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ ضَلَّ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ  

{إن ربك هو أعلم بمن ضل عن سبيله وهو أعلم بالمهتدين} له وأعلم بمعنى عالم.

Then do not obey the deniers.  

So do not obey the deniers.

فَلَا تُطِعِ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ  

{فلا تطع المكذبين}.

They wish that you would soften ˹in your position˺, so they would soften ˹toward you˺.  

They desire, they yearn, that (law relates to the verbal action) you should be pliable, ˹that˺ you should yield to them, so that they may be pliable ˹towards you˺, ˹so that˺ they may yield to you (fa-yudhinūna is a supplement to tudhinu, ‘you should be pliable’, but if it is understood to be the response to the optative clause of waddū, ‘they yearn’, then ˹a free standing pronoun˺ hum should be read as implied before it after the fā’ ˹sc. fa-hum yudhinūna˺).

وَدُّوا لَوْ تُدْهِنُ فَيُدْهِنُونَ  

{ودوا} تمنوا {لو} مصدرية {تدهن} تلين لهم {فيدهنون} يلينون لك وهو معطوف على تدهن، وإن جعل جواب التمني المفهوم من ودوا قدر قبله بعد الفاء هم.

And do not obey every worthless habitual swearer  

And do not obey any mean, despicable, oath-monger, given to frequent swearing by falsehood,

وَلَا تُطِعْ كُلَّ حَلَّافٍ مَهِينٍ  

{ولا تطع كل حلاف} كثير الحلف بالباطل {مهين} حقير.

˹And˺ scorner, going about with malicious gossip -  

backbiting, faultfinder, that is to say, calumniator, scandal-monger, spreading ˹evil˺ talk among people in order to sow dissension between them,

هَمَّازٍ مَشَّاءٍ بِنَمِيمٍ  

{هماز} غياب أي مغتاب {مشاء بنميم} ساع بالكلام بين الناس على وجه الإفساد بينهم.

A preventer of good, transgressing and sinful,  

hinderer of good, niggardly with his wealth against deserving causes, sinful transgressor, wrongdoer,

مَنَّاعٍ لِلْخَيْرِ مُعْتَدٍ أَثِيمٍ  

{مناع للخير} بخيل بالمال عن الحقوق {معتد} ظالم {أثيم} آثم.

Cruel, moreover, and an illegitimate pretender.  

coarse-grained, crude, moreover ignoble, an adopted son of Quraysh — namely, al-Walīd b. al-Mughīra, whose father claimed him after eighteen years; Ibn ‘Abbās said, ‘We know of no one whom God has described in the derogatory way in which He describes him, blighting him with ignominy that will never leave him (the adverbial qualifier ˹ba‘da dhālika, ‘moreover’˺ is semantically connected to zanīm, ‘ignoble’) —

عُتُلٍّ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ زَنِيمٍ  

{عتل} غليظ جاف {بعد ذلك زنيم} دعيٍّ في قريش، وهو الوليد بن المغيرة ادَّعاه أبوه بعد ثماني عشرة سنة، قال ابن عباس: لا نعلم أن الله وصف أحدا بما وصفه به من العيوب فألحق به عارا لا يفارقه أبدا، وتعلق بزنيم الظرف قبله.

Because he is a possessor of wealth and children,  

˹only˺ because (an should be understood as li-an, ‘because’, and it is semantically connected to that ˹meaning˺ which it is indicating) he has wealth and sons.

أَنْ كَانَ ذَا مَالٍ وَبَنِينَ  

{أن كان ذا مال وبنين} أي لأن وهو متعلق بما دل عليه.

When Our verses are recited to him, he says, "Legends of the former peoples."  

When Our signs — the Qur’ān — are recited to him, he says, that they are ˹merely˺, ‘Fables of the ancients!’, in other words, he denies them ˹in arrogance˺ on account of the mentioned things which We have bestowed on him out of Our grace (a variant reading ˹for an of the previous verse˺ has ˹the interrogative˺ a-an).

إِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِ آيَاتُنَا قَالَ أَسَاطِيرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ  

{إذ تتلى عليه آياتنا} القرآن {قال} هي {أساطير الأولين} أي كذب بها لإنعامنا عليه بما ذكر، وفي قراءة أأن بهمزتين مفتوحتين.

We will brand him upon the snout.  

We shall brand him on the snout: We shall leave a distinguishing mark upon his nose, one by which he will be reviled for as long as he lives; and so his nose was chopped off by a sword at Badr.

سَنَسِمُهُ عَلَى الْخُرْطُومِ  

{سنسمه على الخرطوم} سنجعل على أنفه علامة يعير بها ما عاش فخطم أنفه بالسيف يوم بدر.