31. Sūrat Luqmān

٣١۔ سُورَةُ لقمَان

31.1 The Quran is the Book of Wisdom, a Guide and a Blessing for the Righteous.

٣١۔١ مقطع في سُورَةُ لقمَان

quran:31:1In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.

Alif, Lam, Meem.  

Alif lām mīm: God knows best what He means by these ˹letters˺.
القرآن:٣١:١بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ


{الم} الله أعلم بمراده به.

These are verses of the wise Book,  

Those, namely, these signs, are the signs of the wise Book, the Qur’ān, the one containing wisdom (the genitive annexation ˹āyātu’l-kitābi’l-hakīm˺ has the ˹partitive˺ meaning of min, ‘from’);

تِلْكَ آيَاتُ الْكِتَابِ الْحَكِيمِ  

{تلك} أي هذه الآيات {آيات الكتاب} القرآن {الحكيم} ذي الحكمة والإضافة بمعنى من.

As guidance and mercy for the doers of good  

it is, a guidance and a mercy (read nominative rahmatun; the popular accusative reading ˹rahmatan˺ would make it a circumstantial qualifier referring to āyāt, ‘signs’, the operator of which being the implicit demonstrative import of tilka, ‘those’) for the virtuous,

هُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِلْمُحْسِنِينَ  

هو (هدى ورحمة) بالرفع (للمحسنين) وفي قراءة العامة بالنصب حالاً من الآيات العامل فيها ما في "تلك" من معنى الإشارة.

Who establish prayer and give zakah, and they, of the Hereafter, are certain ˹in faith˺.  

who maintain the prayer (alladhīna yuqīmūna’l-salāta, an explication of al-muhsinīna, ‘the virtuous’) and pay the alms and who are certain of the Hereafter (the repetition of hum, ‘they’ ˹here translated ‘who’˺ is for emphasis).

الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ بِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ  

{الذين يقيمون الصلاة} بيان للمحسنين {ويؤتون الزكاة وهم بالآخرة هم يوقنون} هم الثاني تأكيد.

Those are on ˹right˺ guidance from their Lord, and it is those who are the successful.  

Such follow guidance from their Lord and it is they who are the successful, the winners.

أُولَٰئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ  

{أولئك على هدى من ربهم وأولئك هم المفلحون} الفائزون.

And of the people is he who buys the amusement of speech to mislead ˹others˺ from the way of Allah without knowledge and who takes it in ridicule. Those will have a humiliating punishment.  

And among people there is he who purchases idle talk, in other words, that ˹part of it˺ which diverts ˹people˺ from its ˹true˺ significance, that he may lead ˹people˺ astray (read li-yadilla; or li-yudilla) from the way of God, the religion of Islam, without knowledge and take it (read ˹subjunctive˺ wa-yattakhidhahā as a supplement to yudilla, ‘that he may lead astray’; or ˹indicative˺ wa-yattakhidhuhā as a supplement to yashtarī, ‘who buys’) in mockery, as something to be mocked. For such there will be a humiliating chastisement, one of abasement.

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَشْتَرِي لَهْوَ الْحَدِيثِ لِيُضِلَّ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَيَتَّخِذَهَا هُزُوًا ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُهِينٌ  

{ومن الناس من يشتري لهو الحديث} أي ما يلهي منه عما يعني {ليضلَّ} بفتح الياء وضمها {عن سبيل الله} طريق الإسلام {بغير علمٍ ويتخذها} بالنصب عطفاً على يضل، وبالرفع عطفاً على يشتري {هزؤاً} مهزوءاً بها {أولئك لهم عذاب مهين} ذو إهانة.

And when our verses are recited to him, he turns away arrogantly as if he had not heard them, as if there was in his ears deafness. So give him tidings of a painful punishment.  

And when Our signs, in other words, ˹in˺ the Qur’ān, are recited to such ˹a one˺ he turns away disdainfully as though he never heard them, as though there were a deafness in his ears (both comparisons constitute two circumstantial qualifiers referring to the subject of ˹the verb˺ wallā, ‘turns away’; or it is that the second ˹comparison˺ is an explication of the first). So give him tidings of, inform him of, a painful chastisement. The use of ˹the expression˺ ‘good tidings’ meant derisively against such ˹a person˺ — this was al-Nadr b. alHārith. He used to visit al-Hīra for commerce and purchase books containing the stories of the non-Arab peoples and then recount these to the people of Mecca. He would say, ‘Muhammad recounts to you the stories of ‘Ād and Thamūd, whereas I relate to you the stories of the Persians and the Byzantines!’ They would thus ˹go to˺ enjoy his stories and neglect to listen to the Qur’ān.

وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِ آيَاتُنَا وَلَّىٰ مُسْتَكْبِرًا كَأَنْ لَمْ يَسْمَعْهَا كَأَنَّ فِي أُذُنَيْهِ وَقْرًا ۖ فَبَشِّرْهُ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ  

{وإذا تتلى عليه آياتنا} أي القرآن {ولَّى مستكبرا} متكبرا {كأن لم يسمعها كأن في أذنيه وقرا} صمما وجملتا التشبيه حالان من ضمير ولَّى أو الثانية بيان للأولى {فبشِّره} أعلمه {بعذاب أليم} مؤلم وذكر البشارة تهكم به وهو النضر بن الحارث، كان يأتي الحيرة يتجر فيشتري كتب أخبار الأعاجم ويحدث بها أهل مكة ويقول: إن محمدا يحدثكم أحاديث عاد وثمود، وأنا أحدثكم أحاديث فارس والروم فيستملحون حديثه ويتركون استماع القرآن.

Indeed, those who believe and do righteous deeds - for them are the Gardens of Pleasure.  

Surely those who believe and perform righteous deeds, for them there shall be Gardens of Bliss,

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتُ النَّعِيمِ  

{إن الذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات لهم جنات النعيم}.

Wherein they abide eternally; ˹it is˺ the promise of Allah ˹which is˺ truth. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.  

abiding therein (khālidīna fīhā, is a circumstantial qualification ˹of a future status˺), in other words, their abiding therein will have been ordained once they enter it — a promise of God in truth, that is to say, God promised them this and realised it in truth; and He is the Mighty, Whom nothing can overwhelm and so prevent Him from fulfilling His promise and His threat ˹of chastisement˺, the Wise, the One Who assigns all things to their rightful places.

خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۖ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقًّا ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ  

{خالدين فيها} حال مقدرة أي: مقدرا خلودهم فيها إذا دخلوها {وعد الله حقا} أي وعدهم الله ذلك وحقه حقا {وهو العزيز} الذي لا يغلبه شيء فيمنعه من إنجاز وعده ووعيده {الحكيم} الذي لا يضع شيئا إلا في محله.

He created the heavens without pillars that you see and has cast into the earth firmly set mountains, lest it should shift with you, and dispersed therein from every creature. And We sent down rain from the sky and made grow therein ˹plants˺ of every noble kind.  

He created the heavens without any pillars that you can see (‘amad is the plural of ‘imād, which is an ustuwāna, ‘a column’) — this is the truth since there are no actual pillars — and cast high mountains into the earth, lest it shake with you, and He dispersed therein all kinds beasts. And We sent down (there is a shift from the third ˹to the second˺ person) water from the heaven and We caused to grow in it of every splendid kind, ˹every˺ fair specimen.

خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ بِغَيْرِ عَمَدٍ تَرَوْنَهَا ۖ وَأَلْقَىٰ فِي الْأَرْضِ رَوَاسِيَ أَنْ تَمِيدَ بِكُمْ وَبَثَّ فِيهَا مِنْ كُلِّ دَابَّةٍ ۚ وَأَنْزَلْنَا مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَنْبَتْنَا فِيهَا مِنْ كُلِّ زَوْجٍ كَرِيمٍ  

{خلق السماوات بغير عمَدٍ ترونها} أي العمد جمع عماد وهو الاسطوانة، وهو صادق بأن لا عمد أصلا {وألقى في الأرض رواسي} جبالا مرتفعة لـ {أن} لا {تميد} تتحرك {بكم وبثَّ فيها من كل دابة وأنزلنا} فيه التفات عن الغيبة {من السماء ماءً فأنبتنا فيها من كل زوجٍ كريمٍ} صنف حسن.

This is the creation of Allah. So show Me what those other than Him have created. Rather, the wrongdoers are in clear error.  

This is God’s creation, in other words, what is created by Him. Now show me, inform me, O people of Mecca, what those ˹you worship˺ besides Him, ˹those˺ other than Him, have created, namely, your gods, so that you have associated them with Him, exalted be He (mā is an interrogative of denial and a subject; dhā has the significance of alladhī, and what follows it of the relative clause is the predicate ˹of the subject mā˺; arūnī glosses ‘the action’, and what follows it stands in place of two direct objects). Nay (bal, is for transition) but the evildoers are in manifest error, ˹error˺ that is evident because of their ascribing partners to God: and you are like them.

هَٰذَا خَلْقُ اللَّهِ فَأَرُونِي مَاذَا خَلَقَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ دُونِهِ ۚ بَلِ الظَّالِمُونَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ  

{هذا خلق الله} أي مخلوقه {فأروني} أخبروني يا أهل مكة {ماذا خلق الذين من دونه} غيره أي آلهتكم حتى أشركتموها به تعالى، وما استفهام إنكار مبتدأ وذا بمعنى الذي بصلته خبره وأروني معلق عن العمل وما بعده سد مسد المفعولين {بل} للانتقال {الظالمون في ضلالٍ مبينٍ} بيّن بإشراكهم وأنتم منهم.