60. Sūrat al-Mumtaḥanah

٦٠۔ سُورَةُ المُمتَحَنة

She that is to be examined (Medinan)

quran:60:1In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.

O you who have believed, do not take My enemies and your enemies as allies, extending to them affection while they have disbelieved in what came to you of the truth, having driven out the Prophet and yourselves ˹only˺ because you believe in Allah, your Lord. If you have come out for jihad in My cause and seeking means to My approval, ˹take them not as friends˺. You confide to them affection, but I am most knowing of what you have concealed and what you have declared. And whoever does it among you has certainly strayed from the soundness of the way.  

O you who believe, do not take My enemy and your enemy, namely, the disbelievers of Mecca, for friends. You offer, you communicate to, them, the Prophet’s plan (s) to attack them, which he had confided to you, and had kept secret, at Hunayn, ˹communicating this to them out of˺, affection, between you and them. Hātib b. Abī Balta‘a sent them a letter to that effect, on account of his having children and close relatives, idolaters, among them. The Prophet (s) intercepted it from the person to whom he ˹Hātib˺ had given it to deliver, after God apprised him of this. Hātib’s excuse for this ˹conduct of his˺ was accepted ˹by the Prophet˺; when verily they have disbelieved in the truth that has come to you, that is, ˹in˺ the religion of Islam and the Qur’ān, expelling the Messenger and you, from Mecca, by oppressing you, because you believe in God, your Lord. If you have gone forth to struggle in My way and to seek My pleasure … (the response to the conditional is indicated by what preceded, that is to say, ˹understand it as being˺ ‘then do not take them as friends’). You secretly harbour affection for them, when I know well what you hide and what you proclaim. And whoever among you does that, that is, to secretly communicate the Prophet’s news to them, has verily strayed from the right way, he has missed the path of guidance (originally, al-sawā’ means ‘the middle ˹way˺’).
القرآن:٦٠:١بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا عَدُوِّي وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ تُلْقُونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَقَدْ كَفَرُوا بِمَا جَاءَكُمْ مِنَ الْحَقِّ يُخْرِجُونَ الرَّسُولَ وَإِيَّاكُمْ ۙ أَنْ تُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ رَبِّكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ خَرَجْتُمْ جِهَادًا فِي سَبِيلِي وَابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِي ۚ تُسِرُّونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَأَنَا أَعْلَمُ بِمَا أَخْفَيْتُمْ وَمَا أَعْلَنْتُمْ ۚ وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْهُ مِنْكُمْ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَاءَ السَّبِيلِ  

{يا أيها الذين آمنوا لا تتخذوا عدوي وعدوَّكم} أي كفار مكة {أولياء تلقون} توصلون {إليهم} قصد النبي ﷺ غزوهم الذي أسرَّوُ إليكم وَوَرَّى بحُنَين {بالمودة} بينكم وبينهم كتب حاطب بن أبي بلتعة إليهم كتابا بذلك لما له عندهم من الأولاد والأهل المشركين فاسترده النبي ﷺ ممن أرسله معه بإعلام الله تعالى له بذلك وقبل عذر حاطب فيه {وقد كفروا بما جاءكم من الحق} أي دين الإسلام والقرآن {يخرجون الرسول وإياكم} من مكة بتضييقهم عليكم {أن تؤمنوا} أي لأجل أن آمنتم {بالله ربكم إن كنتم خرجتم جهادا} للجهاد {في سبيلي وابتغاء مرضاتي} وجواب الشرط دل عليه ما قبله، أي فلا تتخذوهم أولياء {تُسرون إليهم بالمودة وأنا أعلم بما أخفيتم وما أعلنتم ومن يفعله منكم} أي إسرار خبر النبي إليهم {فقد ضل سواء السبيل} أخطأ طريق الهدى، والسواء في الأصل الوسط.

If they gain dominance over you, they would be to you as enemies and extend against you their hands and their tongues with evil, and they wish you would disbelieve.  

If they were to prevail over you, they would be your enemies, and would stretch out against you their hands, to kill and assault you, and their tongues with evil ˹intent˺, with insults and reviling; and they long for you to disbelieve.

إِنْ يَثْقَفُوكُمْ يَكُونُوا لَكُمْ أَعْدَاءً وَيَبْسُطُوا إِلَيْكُمْ أَيْدِيَهُمْ وَأَلْسِنَتَهُمْ بِالسُّوءِ وَوَدُّوا لَوْ تَكْفُرُونَ  

{إن يثقفوكم} يظفروا بكم {يكونوا لكم أعداءً ويبسطوا إليكم أيديهم} بالقتل والضرب {وألسنتهم بالسوء} بالسب والشتم {وودوا} تمنوا {لو تكفرون}.

Never will your relatives or your children benefit you; the Day of Resurrection He will judge between you. And Allah, of what you do, is Seeing.  

Your relatives and your children, the idolatrous ˹ones˺, for whose sake you secretly communicated the news, will not avail you, against the chastisement in the Hereafter. On the Day of Resurrection you will be separated (passive yufsalu; or read active yafsilu, ‘He will separate you’) from them, so that you will be in Paradise, while they will be alongside the disbelievers in the Fire. And God is Seer of what you do.

لَنْ تَنْفَعَكُمْ أَرْحَامُكُمْ وَلَا أَوْلَادُكُمْ ۚ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَكُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ  

{لن تنفعكم أرحامكم} قراباتكم {وْلا أولادكم} المشركون الذين لأجلهم أسررتم الخبر من العذاب في الآخرة {يوم القيامة يُفصَل} بالبناء للمفعول والفاعل {بينكم} وبينهم فتكونون في الجنة وهم جملة الكفار في النار {والله بما تعلمون بصير}.

There has already been for you an excellent pattern in Abraham and those with him, when they said to their people, "Indeed, we are disassociated from you and from whatever you worship other than Allah. We have denied you, and there has appeared between us and you animosity and hatred forever until you believe in Allah alone" except for the saying of Abraham to his father, "I will surely ask forgiveness for you, but I have not ˹power to do˺ for you anything against Allah. Our Lord, upon You we have relied, and to You we have returned, and to You is the destination.  

Verily there is for you a good example (read iswa or uswa in both instances, meaning qudwa) in ˹the person of˺ Abraham, in terms of ˹his˺ sayings and deeds, and those who were with him, of believers, when they said to their people, ‘We are indeed innocent of you (bura’ā’ is the plural of barī’, similar ˹in form˺ to zarīf, ‘charming’) and of what you worship besides God. We repudiate you, we disavow you, and between us and you there has arisen enmity and hate forever (wa’l-baghdā’u abadan: pronounce both hamzas fully, or replace the second one with a wāw) until you ˹come to˺ believe in God alone’, except for Abraham’s saying to his father, ‘I shall ask forgiveness for you — ˹this statement is˺ excepted from ‘a ˹good˺ example’, so it is not ˹right˺ for you to follow his example in this ˹respect˺ by asking forgiveness for disbelievers. As for his saying: but I cannot avail you anything against God’ — that is, either against His chastisement or ˹to secure for you of˺ His reward — he ˹Abraham˺ is using it to intimate ˹to his father˺ that he can do nothing for him other than to ask forgiveness ˹for him˺, which ˹saying˺ is itself based on that ˹former statement˺ albeit excepted ˹from it˺ in terms of what is meant by it, even if on the face of it, it would seem to be ˹semantically˺ part of the ˹good˺ example to be followed: Say, ‘Who can avail you anything against God’ ˹Q. 48:11˺; his ˹Abraham’s˺ plea of forgiveness for him was before it became evident to him that he ˹his father˺ was an enemy of God, as mentioned in sūrat Barā’a ˹Q. 9:114˺. ‘Our Lord, in You we put our trust, and to You we turn ˹penitently˺, and to You is the journeying: these are the words of the Friend ˹of God, Abraham˺ and those who were with him, in other words, they were saying:

قَدْ كَانَتْ لَكُمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ فِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ إِذْ قَالُوا لِقَوْمِهِمْ إِنَّا بُرَآءُ مِنْكُمْ وَمِمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ كَفَرْنَا بِكُمْ وَبَدَا بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةُ وَالْبَغْضَاءُ أَبَدًا حَتَّىٰ تُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَحْدَهُ إِلَّا قَوْلَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ لِأَبِيهِ لَأَسْتَغْفِرَنَّ لَكَ وَمَا أَمْلِكُ لَكَ مِنَ اللَّهِ مِنْ شَيْءٍ ۖ رَبَّنَا عَلَيْكَ تَوَكَّلْنَا وَإِلَيْكَ أَنَبْنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ  

(قد كانت لكم أسوة) بكسر الهمزة وضمها في الموضعين، قدوة (حسنة في إبراهيم) أي به قولا وفعلا (والذين معه) من المؤمنين (إذ قالوا لقومهم إنا برءاء) جمع بريء كظريف (منكم ومما تعبدون من دون الله كفرنا بكم) أنكرناكم (وبدا بيننا وبينكم العداوة والبغضاء أبدا) بتحقيق الهمزتين وإبدال الثانية واوا (حتى تؤمنوا بالله وحده إلا قول إبراهيم لأبيه لأستغفرن لك) مستثنى من أسوة، فليس لكم التأسي به في ذلك بأن تستغفروا للكفار وقوله (وما أملك لك من الله) أي من عذابه وثوابه (من شيء) كني به عن أنه لا يملك له غير الاستغفار فهو مبني عليه مستثنى من حيث ظاهره مما يتأسى فيه (قل فمن يملك لكم من الله شيئا) واستغفاره له قبل أن يتبين له أنه عدو لله كما ذكره في "" براءة "" (ربنا عليك توكلنا وإليك أنبنا وإليك المصير) من مقول الخليل ومن معه أي قالوا:

Our Lord, make us not ˹objects of˺ torment for the disbelievers and forgive us, our Lord. Indeed, it is You who is the Exalted in Might, the Wise."  

Our Lord, do not make us a cause of beguilement for those who disbelieve, that is to say, do not make them prevail over us, lest they think that they are following the truth and are beguiled as a result, in other words, ˹lest˺ they lose their reason because of us; and forgive us. Our Lord, You are indeed the Mighty, the Wise’, in Your kingdom and Your actions.

رَبَّنَا لَا تَجْعَلْنَا فِتْنَةً لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا رَبَّنَا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ  

{ربنا لا تجعلنا فتنة للذين كفروا} أي لا تظهرهم علينا فيظنوا أنهم على الحق فيفتنوا أي تذهب عقولهم بنا {واغفر لنا ربنا إنك أنت العزيز الحكيم} في ملكك وصنعك.

There has certainly been for you in them an excellent pattern for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Last Day. And whoever turns away - then indeed, Allah is the Free of need, the Praiseworthy.  

Verily there is for you, O community of Muhammad (s) (laqad kāna lakum is the response to an implied oath) in them a good example, for those ˹of you˺ who (li-man kāna is an inclusive substitution for –kum ˹of lakum, ‘for you’˺ with the same preposition ˹li-˺ repeated) anticipate God and the Last Day, that is, ˹for those˺ who fear these two, or who expect reward or punishment. And whoever turns away, by befriending the disbelievers, ˹should know that˺ God is the Independent, ˹without need˺ of His creatures, the Worthy of Praise, to those who obey Him.

لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِيهِمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِمَنْ كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ ۚ وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْغَنِيُّ الْحَمِيدُ  

{لقد كان لكم} يا أمة محمد جواب قسم مقدر {فيهم أسوة حسنة لمن كان} بدل اشتمال من كم بإعادة الجار {يرجوا الله واليوم الآخر} أي يخافهما أو يظن الثواب والعقاب {ومن يتول} بأن يوالي الكفار {فإن الله هو الغني} عن خلقه {الحميد} لأهل طاعته.

Perhaps Allah will put, between you and those to whom you have been enemies among them, affection. And Allah is competent, and Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.  

It may be that God will bring about between you and those of them with whom you are at enmity, from among the disbelievers of Mecca out of ˹your˺ obedience to God, exalted be He, affection, by His guiding them to faith, so that they then become your friends. For God is Powerful, ˹able˺ to do that — and He did do this after the conquest of Mecca — and God is Forgiving, to them of their past ˹deeds˺, Merciful, to them ˹also˺.

عَسَى اللَّهُ أَنْ يَجْعَلَ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَ الَّذِينَ عَادَيْتُمْ مِنْهُمْ مَوَدَّةً ۚ وَاللَّهُ قَدِيرٌ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ  

{عسى الله أن يجعل بينكم وبين الذين عاديتم منهم} من كفار مكة طاعة لله تعالى {مودة} بأن يهديهم للإيمان فيصيروا لكم أولياء {والله قدير} على ذلك وقد فعله بعد فتح مكة {والله غفور} لهم ما سلف {رحيم} بهم.

Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes - from being righteous toward them and acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly.  

God does not forbid you in regard to those who did not wage war against you, from among the disbelievers, on account of religion and did not expel you from your homes, that you should treat them kindly (an tabarrūhum is an inclusive substitution for alladhīna, ‘those who’) and deal with them justly: this was ˹revealed˺ before the command to struggle against them. Assuredly God loves the just.

لَا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَلَمْ يُخْرِجُوكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِكُمْ أَنْ تَبَرُّوهُمْ وَتُقْسِطُوا إِلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ  

{لا ينهاكم الله عن الذين لم يقاتلوكم} من الكفار {في الدين ولم يخرجوكم من دياركم أن تبروهم} بدل اشتمال من الذين {وتقسطوا} تفضوا {إليهم} بالقسط، أي بالعدل وهذا قبل الأمر بجهادهم {إن الله يحب المقسطين} بالعادلين.

Allah only forbids you from those who fight you because of religion and expel you from your homes and aid in your expulsion - ˹forbids˺ that you make allies of them. And whoever makes allies of them, then it is those who are the wrongdoers.  

God only forbids you in regard to those who waged war against you on account of religion and expelled you from your homes and supported ˹others˺ in your expulsion, that you should make friends with them (an tawallawhum is an inclusive substitution for alladhīna, ‘those who’). And whoever makes friends with them, those — they are the wrongdoers.

إِنَّمَا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ قَاتَلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَأَخْرَجُوكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِكُمْ وَظَاهَرُوا عَلَىٰ إِخْرَاجِكُمْ أَنْ تَوَلَّوْهُمْ ۚ وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّهُمْ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ  

{إنما ينهاكم الله عن الذين قاتلوكم في الدين وأخرجوكم من دياركم وظاهروا} عاونوا {على إخراجكم أن تولوهم} بدل اشتمال من الذين، أي تتخذونهم أولياء {ومن يتولهم فأولئك هم الظالمون}.

O you who have believed, when the believing women come to you as emigrants, examine them. Allah is most knowing as to their faith. And if you know them to be believers, then do not return them to the disbelievers; they are not lawful ˹wives˺ for them, nor are they lawful ˹husbands˺ for them. But give the disbelievers what they have spent. And there is no blame upon you if you marry them when you have given them their due compensation. And hold not to marriage bonds with disbelieving women, but ask for what you have spent and let them ask for what they have spent. That is the judgement of Allah; He judges between you. And Allah is Knowing and Wise.  

O you who believe, when believing women come to you, ˹saying˺ with their tongues ˹that they are˺, emigrating, from the ˹company of˺ disbelievers — ˹this was˺ following the truce concluded with them ˹the disbelievers˺ at al-Hudaybiyya to the effect that if any of their number should go to ˹join˺ the believers, that person should be sent back — test them, by making them swear that they had only gone forth ˹from Mecca˺ because of their ˹sincere˺ wish to embrace Islam, and not out of some hatred for their disbelieving husbands, nor because they might be enamoured by some Muslim man: that was how the Prophet (s) used to take from them their oaths. God knows best ˹the state of˺ their faith. Then, if you know them, if you suppose them, on the basis of their oaths, to be believers, do not send them back to the disbelievers. They ˹the women˺ are not lawful for them, nor are they ˹the disbelievers˺ lawful for them. And give them, that is to say, their disbelieving husbands, what they have expended, on them ˹on such women˺, in the way of dowries. And you would not be at fault if you marry them, on that ˹previous˺ condition, when you have given them their dowries. And do not hold on (read tumassikū or tumsikū) to the ˹conjugal˺ ties of disbelieving women, your wives, for your Islam automatically prohibits you from this, or ˹to the ties of˺ those apostatising women who return to the idolaters, for ˹likewise˺ their apostatising automatically prohibits you from marrying them, and ask for, demand, ˹the return of˺ what you have expended, on these women, of dowries, in the event of apostasy, from those disbelievers to whom they are married. And let them ask for what they have expended, on those women who have emigrated, as explained above, that it may be repaid to them. That is God’s judgement. He judges between you, therewith, and God is Knower, Wise.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا جَاءَكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتُ مُهَاجِرَاتٍ فَامْتَحِنُوهُنَّ ۖ اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِإِيمَانِهِنَّ ۖ فَإِنْ عَلِمْتُمُوهُنَّ مُؤْمِنَاتٍ فَلَا تَرْجِعُوهُنَّ إِلَى الْكُفَّارِ ۖ لَا هُنَّ حِلٌّ لَهُمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحِلُّونَ لَهُنَّ ۖ وَآتُوهُمْ مَا أَنْفَقُوا ۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ أَنْ تَنْكِحُوهُنَّ إِذَا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ ۚ وَلَا تُمْسِكُوا بِعِصَمِ الْكَوَافِرِ وَاسْأَلُوا مَا أَنْفَقْتُمْ وَلْيَسْأَلُوا مَا أَنْفَقُوا ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ حُكْمُ اللَّهِ ۖ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَكُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ  

{يا أيها الذين آمنوا إذا جاءكم المؤمنات} بألسنتهن {مهاجرات} من الكفار بعد الصلح معهم في الحديبية على أن من جاء منهم إلى المؤمنين يرد {فامتحنوهن} بالحلف على أنهن ما خرجن إلا رغبة في الإسلام لا بغضاً لأزواجهن الكفار ولا عشقا لرجال من المسلمين كذا كان النبي ﷺ يحلفهن {الله أعلم بإيمانهن فأن علمتموهن} ظننتموهن بالحلف {مؤمنات فلا ترجعوهن} تردوهن {إلى الكفار لا هن حل لهم ولا هم يحلون لهن وآتوهم} أي أعطوا الكفار أزواجهن {ما أنفقوا} عليهن من المهور {ولا جناح عليكم أن تنكحوهن} بشرطه {إذا آتيتموهن أجورهن} مهورهن {ولا تمسِّكوا} بالتشديد والتخفيف {بعصم الكوافر} زوجاتكم لقطع إسلامكم لها بشرطه، أو اللاحقات بالمشركين مرتدات لقطع ارتدادهن نكاحكم بشرطه {واسألوا} اطلبوا {ما أنفقتم} عليهن من المهور في صورة الارتداد ممن تزوجهنَّ من الكفار {وليسألوا ما أنفقوا} على المهاجرات كما تقدم أنهم يؤتونه {ذلكم حكم الله يحكم بينكم} به {والله عليكم حكيم}.

And if you have lost any of your wives to the disbelievers and you subsequently obtain ˹something˺, then give those whose wives have gone the equivalent of what they had spent. And fear Allah, in whom you are believers.  

And if you lose any of your wives, that is to say, ˹if you lose˺ one or more of them — or ˹it means if you lose˺ anything of their dowries — by ˹their˺ going, to the disbelievers, as apostates, and so you retaliate, you embark upon a raid and capture spoils ˹from them˺, then give those whose wives have gone, from the spoils, the like of what they have expended, for their having lost it to the disbelievers. And fear God in Whom you believe. And indeed the believers did what they had been commanded to do in the way of paying ˹back˺ the disbelievers ˹the dowries of their former wives˺ and the believers ˹the dowries of the women who had apostatised˺. Afterwards, however, this stipulation was annulled.

وَإِنْ فَاتَكُمْ شَيْءٌ مِنْ أَزْوَاجِكُمْ إِلَى الْكُفَّارِ فَعَاقَبْتُمْ فَآتُوا الَّذِينَ ذَهَبَتْ أَزْوَاجُهُمْ مِثْلَ مَا أَنْفَقُوا ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي أَنْتُمْ بِهِ مُؤْمِنُونَ  

{وإن فاتكم شيء من أزواجكم} أي واحدة فأكثر منهن أو شيء من مهور بالذهاب {إلى الكفار} مرتدات {فعاقبتم} فغزوتم وغنمتم {فآتوا الذين ذهبت أزواجهم} من الغنيمة {مثل ما أنفقوا} لفواته عليهم من جهة الكفار {واتقوا الله الذي أنتم به مؤمنون} وقد فعل المؤمنون ما أمروا به من الإيتاء للكفار والمؤمنين ثم ارتفع هذا الحكم.

O Prophet, when the believing women come to you pledging to you that they will not associate anything with Allah, nor will they steal, nor will they commit unlawful sexual intercourse, nor will they kill their children, nor will they bring forth a slander they have invented between their arms and legs, nor will they disobey you in what is right - then accept their pledge and ask forgiveness for them of Allah. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.  

O Prophet, if believing women come to you, pledging allegiance to you that they will not ascribe anything as partner to God, and that they will not steal, nor commit adultery, nor slay their children, as used to be done during the time of pagandom (jāhiliyya), when they would bury new-born girls alive, fearing ignominy and impoverishment, nor bring any lie that they have invented ˹originating˺ between their hands and their legs, that is, ˹by bringing˺ a foundling which they then ˹falsely˺ ascribe to the husband — it ˹the lie˺ is described in terms of a real child, because when a woman gives birth to a child, it falls between her hands and legs; nor disobey you in, doing, what is decent, which is that which concords with obedience to God, such as refraining from wailing, ripping apart ˹their˺ clothes ˹in grief˺, pulling out ˹their˺ hair, tearing open the front of ˹their˺ garments or scratching ˹their˺ faces, then accept their allegiance — the Prophet (s) did this ˹but˺ in words, and he did not shake hands with any of them — and ask God to forgive them; surely God is Forgiving, Merciful.

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتُ يُبَايِعْنَكَ عَلَىٰ أَنْ لَا يُشْرِكْنَ بِاللَّهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَسْرِقْنَ وَلَا يَزْنِينَ وَلَا يَقْتُلْنَ أَوْلَادَهُنَّ وَلَا يَأْتِينَ بِبُهْتَانٍ يَفْتَرِينَهُ بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِنَّ وَأَرْجُلِهِنَّ وَلَا يَعْصِينَكَ فِي مَعْرُوفٍ ۙ فَبَايِعْهُنَّ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُنَّ اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ  

{يا أيها النبي إذا جاءك المؤمنات يبايعنك على أن لا يشركن بالله شيئا ولا يسرقن ولا يزنين ولا يقتلن أولادهن} كما كان يفعل في الجاهلية من وأد البنات، أي دفنهن أحياء خوف العار والفقر {ولا يأتين ببهتان يفترينه بين أيديهن وأرجلهن} أي بولد ملقوط ينسبنه إلى الزوج ووصف بصفة الولد الحقيقي، فإن الأم إذا وضعته سقط بين يديها ورجليها {ولا يعصينك في} فعل {معروف} هو ما وافق طاعة الله كترك النياحة وتمزيق الثياب وجز الشعور وشق الجيب وخمش الوجه {فبايعهن} فعل ذلك ﷺ بالقول ولم يصافح واحدة منهن {واستغفر لهن الله إن الله غفور رحيم}.

O you who have believed, do not make allies of a people with whom Allah has become angry. They have despaired of ˹reward in˺ the Hereafter just as the disbelievers have despaired of ˹meeting˺ the inhabitants of the graves.  

O you who believe, do not befriend a people against whom God is wrathful, namely, the Jews. They have truly despaired of the Hereafter, of ˹attaining˺ its reward — despite their being certain of its truth, out of obstinacy towards the Prophet, even though they know him to be sincere — just as the disbelievers have despaired — they ˹themselves˺ being — of those who are in the tombs, that is to say, those who are entombed ˹and barred˺ from the good of the Hereafter, for they are shown ˹both˺ their ˹would-have-been˺ places in Paradise, had they believed, and the Fire for which they are destined. Meccan or Medinese, consisting of 14 verses.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَوَلَّوْا قَوْمًا غَضِبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ قَدْ يَئِسُوا مِنَ الْآخِرَةِ كَمَا يَئِسَ الْكُفَّارُ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ الْقُبُورِ  

{يا أيها الذين آمنوا لا تتولوا قوما غضب الله عليهم} هم اليهود {قد يئسوا من الآخرة} من ثوابها مع إيقانهم بها لعنادهم النبي مع علمهم بصدقه {كما يئس الكفار} الكائنون {من أصحاب القبور} أي المقبورين من خير الآخرة، إذ تعرض عليهم مقاعدهم من الجنة لو كانوا آمنوا وما يصيرون إليه من النار.