72. Sūrat al-Jinn

٧٢۔ سُورَةُ الجِنّ

72.3 The Messengers do not have the power to harm or benefit anyone, their mission is just to convey God's message. Only God knows the unseen, He reveals it to whom He chooses from the Messengers.

٧٢۔٣ مقطع في سُورَةُ الجِنّ


Say, ˹O Muhammad˺, "I only invoke my Lord and do not associate with Him anyone."  

He said, in response to the disbelievers saying, ‘Abandon this affair of yours!’ (a variant reading ˹for qāla, ‘he said’˺, has qul, ‘Say:’) ‘I invoke only my Lord, as God, and I do not associate anyone with Him’.

قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَدْعُو رَبِّي وَلَا أُشْرِكُ بِهِ أَحَدًا  

{قال} مجيبا للكفار في قولهم ارجع عما أنت فيه وفي قراءة قل {إنما أدعو ربي} إلها {ولا أشرك به أحدا}.

Say, "Indeed, I do not possess for you ˹the power of˺ harm or right direction."  

Say: ‘I truly have no power to bring you any harm, to lead ˹you˺ astray, or any guidance’, any good.

قُلْ إِنِّي لَا أَمْلِكُ لَكُمْ ضَرًّا وَلَا رَشَدًا  

{قل إني لا أملك لكم ضرا} غيا {ولا رشدا} خيرا.

Say, "Indeed, there will never protect me from Allah anyone ˹if I should disobey˺, nor will I find in other than Him a refuge.  

Say: ‘Indeed none shall protect me from God, from His chastisement, were I to disobey Him, and I shall never find besides Him, that is, other than Him, any refuge.

قُلْ إِنِّي لَنْ يُجِيرَنِي مِنَ اللَّهِ أَحَدٌ وَلَنْ أَجِدَ مِنْ دُونِهِ مُلْتَحَدًا  

{قل إني لن يجيرني من الله} من عذابه إن عصيته {أحد ولن أجد من دونه} أي غيره {ملتحدا} ملتجأ.

But ˹I have for you˺ only notification from Allah, and His messages." And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger - then indeed, for him is the fire of Hell; they will abide therein forever.  

˹I have power to bring you˺ only a communication (illā balāghan is excepted from the direct object clause of amliku, ‘I have power ˹to bring˺’, that is to say, I have power only to communicate ˹the Message˺ to you, from God, that is, on His behalf, and His Messages (wa-risālātihi is a supplement to balāghan, ‘a communication’; what comes between the excepted clause and the clause from which it is excepted is a parenthetical statement intended to emphasise the preclusion of ˹the Prophet’s˺ ‘ability ˹to bring them anything else˺’). And whoever disobeys God and His Messenger, concerning the affirmation of ˹His˺ Oneness, and hence does not believe — indeed there will be for him the fire of Hell, abiding (khālidīna is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the person indicated by man, ‘whoever’, in lahu, ‘for him’, taking into account its ˹plural˺ import; it ˹khālidīna˺ is also an implied circumstantial qualifier, in other words, they shall enter it with their abiding having been preordained) therein forever’.

إِلَّا بَلَاغًا مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرِسَالَاتِهِ ۚ وَمَنْ يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَإِنَّ لَهُ نَارَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا  

{إلا بلاغا} استثناء من مفعول أملك، أي لا أملك لكم إلا البلاغ إليكم {من الله} أي عنه {ورسالاته} عطف على بلاغا وما بين المستثنى منه والاستثناء اعتراض لتأكيد نفي الاستطاعة {ومن يعص الله رسوله} في التوحيد فلم يؤمن {فإن له نار جهنم خالدين} حال من ضمير من في له رعاية في معناها وهي حال مقدرة والمعنى يدخلونها مقدار خلودهم {فيها أبدا}.

˹The disbelievers continue˺ until, when they see that which they are promised, then they will know who is weaker in helpers and less in number.  

Such that when they see (hattā is for inceptiveness, ˹but˺ also entailing a purposive sense to an implied preceding clause, that is to say, they persist in their disbelief until they come to see …) what they are promised, of chastisement, they will then know, at the moment that it befalls them, ˹either˺ on the day of Badr or on the Day of Resurrection, who is weaker in supporters and fewer in numbers, in assistants: is it them or the believers — according to the former ˹reading˺? Or, is it Me or them, according to the latter. Some of them said, ‘When will this promise be ˹fulfilled˺?’, whereupon the following was revealed:

حَتَّىٰ إِذَا رَأَوْا مَا يُوعَدُونَ فَسَيَعْلَمُونَ مَنْ أَضْعَفُ نَاصِرًا وَأَقَلُّ عَدَدًا  

{حتى إذا رأوْا} إبتدائية فيها معنى الغاية لمقدر قبلها أي لا يزالون على كفرهم إلى أن يروا {ما يوعدون} به من العذاب {فسيعلمون} عند حلوله بهم يوم بدر أو يوم القيامة {من أضعف ناصرا وأقل عددا} أعوانا أهم أم المؤمنون على القول الأول أو أنا أم هم على الثاني فقال بعضهم متى هذا الوعد؟ فنزل:

Say, "I do not know if what you are promised is near or if my Lord will grant for it a ˹long˺ period."  

Say: ‘I do not know if what you are promised, of chastisement, is near, or if my Lord has set a ˹distant˺ length for it, an extent and a term which only He knows.

قُلْ إِنْ أَدْرِي أَقَرِيبٌ مَا تُوعَدُونَ أَمْ يَجْعَلُ لَهُ رَبِّي أَمَدًا  

{قل إن} أي ما {أدري أقريب ما توعدون}؟ من العذاب {أم يجعل له ربي أمدا} غاية وأجلا لا يعلمه إلا هو.

˹He is˺ Knower of the unseen, and He does not disclose His ˹knowledge of the˺ unseen to anyone  

Knower ˹He is˺ of the Unseen, what is hidden from servants, and He does not disclose, He ˹does not˺ reveal, His Unseen to anyone, from mankind,

عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ فَلَا يُظْهِرُ عَلَىٰ غَيْبِهِ أَحَدًا  

{عالم الغيب} ما غاب عن العباد {فلا يظهر} يطلع {على غيبه أحدا} من الناس.

Except whom He has approved of messengers, and indeed, He sends before each messenger and behind him observers  

except to a messenger of whom He approves. Then, in addition to disclosing to him what He will ˹to disclose˺ of it, by way of ˹making it˺ a miracle for him, He despatches, He appoints and sends forth, before him, namely, the Messenger, and behind him watchers, angels to preserve him until He has conveyed ˹it˺ to him as part of the ˹entire˺ revelation,

إِلَّا مَنِ ارْتَضَىٰ مِنْ رَسُولٍ فَإِنَّهُ يَسْلُكُ مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِ رَصَدًا  

{إلا من ارتضى من رسول فإنه} مع إطلاعه على ما شاء منه معجزة له {يسلك} يجعل ويسير {من بين يديه} أي الرسول {ومن خلفه رصدا} ملائكة يحفظونه حتى يبلغه في جملة الوحي.

That he may know that they have conveyed the messages of their Lord; and He has encompassed whatever is with them and has enumerated all things in number.  

so that He, God, may know, by knowledge outwardly manifested, that (an: softened in place of the hardened form, that is to say, annahu) they, that is, the messengers, have conveyed the Messages of their Lord (the plural person ˹of the verb ablaghū, ‘they have conveyed’˺ takes into account ˹the plural˺ implication of man, ‘whom’), and He encompasses all that is with them (wa-ahāta bimā ladayhim is a supplement to an implied clause, that is to say: so He has knowledge of that) and keeps count of all things’ (‘adadan, ‘count’, is for specification; it is transformed from a direct object ˹sc. ‘adada˺, originally: ahsā ‘adada kulli shay’in, ‘He keeps count of all things’). Meccan, except for verse 20, which is Medinese; it consists of 20 verses.

لِيَعْلَمَ أَنْ قَدْ أَبْلَغُوا رِسَالَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ وَأَحَاطَ بِمَا لَدَيْهِمْ وَأَحْصَىٰ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ عَدَدًا  

{ليعلم} الله علم ظهور {أن} مخففة من الثقيلة أي أنه {قد أبلغوا} أي الرسل {رسالات ربهم} روعي بجمع الضمير معنى من {وأحاط بما لديهم} عطف على مقدر، أي فعلم ذلك {وأحصى كل شيء عددا} تمييز وهو محول من المفعول والأصل أحصى عدد كل شيء.