48. Sūrat al-Fatḥ

٤٨۔ سُورَةُ الفَتْح

48.2 Beduin Arabs who did not go with the Prophet for war between Islam and Kufr are condemned for lagging behind. Only the blind, lame and sick are exempt from war.

٤٨۔٢ مقطع في سُورَةُ الفَتْح


Those who remained behind of the bedouins will say to you, "Our properties and our families occupied us, so ask forgiveness for us." They say with their tongues what is not within their hearts. Say, "Then who could prevent Allah at all if He intended for you harm or intended for you benefit? Rather, ever is Allah, with what you do, Acquainted.  

Those of the Bedouins who were left behind, around Medina — that is to say, those whom God made to stay behind and not to accompany you when you had asked them to set out with you for Mecca, fearing that Quraysh would attack you upon your return, in the year of al-Hudaybiyya — will say to you, ‘Our possessions and our families kept us occupied, ˹preventing us˺ from going forth with you. So ask forgiveness for us!’, of God, for our failure to go forth with you. God, exalted be He, exposes their mendacity by saying: They say with their tongues, that is to say, in asking forgiveness, and in the preceding statement ˹of theirs˺, what is not in their hearts, and so they are lying in the excuse which they give. Say: ‘Who can (an interrogative meant ˹rhetorically˺ as a negation, that is to say, ‘none ˹can˺’) avail you anything against God should He desire to cause you harm (read darran or durran) or desire to bring you benefit? Nay, but God is ever Aware of what you do, in other words, He is ever possessed of such an attribute.

سَيَقُولُ لَكَ الْمُخَلَّفُونَ مِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ شَغَلَتْنَا أَمْوَالُنَا وَأَهْلُونَا فَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَنَا ۚ يَقُولُونَ بِأَلْسِنَتِهِمْ مَا لَيْسَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ ۚ قُلْ فَمَنْ يَمْلِكُ لَكُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئًا إِنْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ ضَرًّا أَوْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ نَفْعًا ۚ بَلْ كَانَ اللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا  

{سيقول لك المخلفون من الأعراب} حول المدينة، أي الذين خلفهم الله عن صحبتك لما طلبتهم ليخرجوا معك إلى مكة خوفا من تعرض قريش لك عام الحديبية إذا رجعت منها {شغلتنا أموالنا وأهلونا} عن الخروج معك {فاستغفر لنا} الله من تَرْك الخروج معك قال تعالى مكذبا لهم: {يقولون بألسنتهم} أي من طلب الاستغفار وما قبله {ما ليس في قلوبهم} فهم كاذبون في اعتذارهم {قل فمن} استفهام بمعنى النفي أي لا أحد {يملك لكم من الله شيئا إن أراد بكم ضَُرا} بفتح الضاد وضمها {أو أراد بكم نفعا بل كان الله بما تعملون خبيرا} أي لم يزل متصفا بذلك.

But you thought that the Messenger and the believers would never return to their families, ever, and that was made pleasing in your hearts. And you assumed an assumption of evil and became a people ruined."  

Nay (bal in both instances marks a transition from one subject to another), but you thought that the Messenger and the believers would never return to their families, and that ˹thought˺ was adorned in your hearts, that is to say, ˹you thought˺ that they would be annihilated by being slain and would not return, and you thought evil thoughts, that ˹just mentioned˺, and other things, and you were a ruined lot’ (būr is the plural of bā’ir), in other words, ˹a lot to be˺ destroyed according to God for ˹having entertained˺ such ˹evil˺ thoughts.

بَلْ ظَنَنْتُمْ أَنْ لَنْ يَنْقَلِبَ الرَّسُولُ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِيهِمْ أَبَدًا وَزُيِّنَ ذَٰلِكَ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ وَظَنَنْتُمْ ظَنَّ السَّوْءِ وَكُنْتُمْ قَوْمًا بُورًا  

{بل} في الموضوعين للانتقال من غرض إلى آخر {ظننتم أن لن ينقلب الرسول والمؤمنون إلى أهليهم أبدا وزُيِّن ذلك في قلوبكم} أي أنهم يستأصلون بالقتل فلا يرجعون {وظننتم ظن السَّوء} هذا وغيره {وكنتم قوما بورا} جمع بائر، أي هالكين عند الله بهذا الظن.

And whoever has not believed in Allah and His Messenger - then indeed, We have prepared for the disbelievers a Blaze.  

And whoever does not believe in God and His Messenger, We have prepared for the disbelievers a blaze, a severe fire.

وَمَنْ لَمْ يُؤْمِنْ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ فَإِنَّا أَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ سَعِيرًا  

{ومن لم يؤمن بالله ورسوله فإنا أعتدنا للكافرين سعيرا} نارا شديدة.

And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. He forgives whom He wills and punishes whom He wills. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful.  

And to God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth: He forgives whomever He will and chastises whomever He will; and God is ever Forgiving, Merciful, that is to say, He is ever possessed of the attributes mentioned.

وَلِلَّهِ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ يَغْفِرُ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا  

{ولله ملك السماوات والأرض يغفر لمن يشاء ويعذِّب من يشاء وكان الله غفورا رحيما} أي لم يزل متصفا بما ذكر.

Those who remained behind will say when you set out toward the war booty to take it, "Let us follow you." They wish to change the words of Allah. Say, "Never will you follow us. Thus did Allah say before." So they will say, "Rather, you envy us." But ˹in fact˺ they were not understanding except a little.  

Those, mentioned, who were left behind will say, when you set forth after spoils, namely, the spoils of Khaybar, in order to capture them, ‘Let us follow you’, that we might ˹also˺ take a share of it. They desire, thereby, to change the words of God (kalāma’Llāhi: a variant reading has kalima’Llāhi), in other words, His promising of the spoils of Khaybar exclusively for those who were at al-Hudaybiyya. Say: ‘You shall never follow us! Thus has God said beforehand’, that is, prior to our return. Then they will say, ‘Nay, but you are envious of us’, lest we might acquire a share of the spoils, and therefore you say this ˹that you say˺. Nay, but they never understood, anything of religion, ˹all˺ except a few, of them.

سَيَقُولُ الْمُخَلَّفُونَ إِذَا انْطَلَقْتُمْ إِلَىٰ مَغَانِمَ لِتَأْخُذُوهَا ذَرُونَا نَتَّبِعْكُمْ ۖ يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يُبَدِّلُوا كَلَامَ اللَّهِ ۚ قُلْ لَنْ تَتَّبِعُونَا كَذَٰلِكُمْ قَالَ اللَّهُ مِنْ قَبْلُ ۖ فَسَيَقُولُونَ بَلْ تَحْسُدُونَنَا ۚ بَلْ كَانُوا لَا يَفْقَهُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا  

{سيقول المخلفون} المذكورون {إذا انطقتم إلى مغانم} هي مغانم خيبر، {لتأخذوها ذرونا} اتركونا {نتبعكم} لنأخذ منها {يريدون} بذلك {أن يبدّلوا كلام الله} وفي قراءة: كلِم الله بكسر اللام أي مواعيده بغنائم خيبر أهل الحديبية خاصة {قل لن تتبعونا كذالكم قال الله من قبل} أي قبل عودنا {فسيقولون بل تحسدوننا} أن نصيب معكم من الغنائم فقلتم ذلك {بل كانوا لا يفقهون} من الدين {إلا قليلا} منهم.

Say to those who remained behind of the bedouins, "You will be called to ˹face˺ a people of great military might; you may fight them, or they will submit. So if you obey, Allah will give you a good reward; but if you turn away as you turned away before, He will punish you with a painful punishment."  

Say to those of the Bedouins, mentioned, who were left behind, to test them: ‘You shall be called against a people possessed of great might — these are said to have been the ˹tribe of˺ Banū Hanīfa, the inhabitants of ˹the region of˺ al-Yamāma; but it is also said that these were the Persians and the Byzantines — you shall fight them (tuqātilūnahum is a circumstancial qualifier referring to an implied ˹future˺ situation, which constitutes that to which the ‘call’ will be made); or they will submit, so that you will not ˹have to˺ fight. So if you obey, ˹the command˺ to fight them, God will give you a good reward; but if you turn away like you turned away before, He will chastise you with a painful chastisement’.

قُلْ لِلْمُخَلَّفِينَ مِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ سَتُدْعَوْنَ إِلَىٰ قَوْمٍ أُولِي بَأْسٍ شَدِيدٍ تُقَاتِلُونَهُمْ أَوْ يُسْلِمُونَ ۖ فَإِنْ تُطِيعُوا يُؤْتِكُمُ اللَّهُ أَجْرًا حَسَنًا ۖ وَإِنْ تَتَوَلَّوْا كَمَا تَوَلَّيْتُمْ مِنْ قَبْلُ يُعَذِّبْكُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا  

{قل للمخلفين من الأعراب} المذكورين اختبارا {ستدعوْن إلى قوم أولي} أصحاب {بأس شديد} قيل هم بنو حنيفة أصحاب اليمامة، وقيل فارس والروم {تقاتلونهم} حال مقدرة هي المدعو إليها في المعنى {أو} هم {يسلمون} فلا تقاتلون {فإن تطيعوا} إلى قتالهم {يؤتكم الله أجرا حسنا وإن تتولوا كما توليتم من قبل يعذّبكم عذابا أليما} مؤلما.

There is not upon the blind any guilt or upon the lame any guilt or upon the ill any guilt ˹for remaining behind˺. And whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger - He will admit him to gardens beneath which rivers flow; but whoever turns away - He will punish him with a painful punishment.  

There is no blame on the blind, nor ˹is there˺ blame on the lame, nor ˹is there˺ blame on the sick, to refrain from ˹participating in˺ the struggle. And whoever obeys God and His Messenger, He will admit him (read yudkhilhu, or nudkhilhu, ‘We will admit him’) into gardens underneath which rivers flow; and whoever turns away, him He will chastise (read yu‘adhdhibhu, or nu‘adhdhibhu, ‘him We will chastise’) with a painful chastisement.

لَيْسَ عَلَى الْأَعْمَىٰ حَرَجٌ وَلَا عَلَى الْأَعْرَجِ حَرَجٌ وَلَا عَلَى الْمَرِيضِ حَرَجٌ ۗ وَمَنْ يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۖ وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّ يُعَذِّبْهُ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا  

{ليس على الأعمى حرج ولا على الأعرج حرج ولا على المريض حرج} في ترك الجهاد {ومن يطع الله ورسوله يدخله} بالياء والنون {جنات تجري من تحتها الأنهار ومن يتول يعذّبه} بالياء والنون {عذابا أليما}.