48. Sūrat al-Fatḥ

٤٨۔ سُورَةُ الفَتْح

48.3 God was well pleased with those who swore allegiance to the Prophet before the treaty of Hudaibiyah. Had there not been believers in Makkah, God would have allowed the Muslims to fight against Quraysh.

٤٨۔٣ مقطع في سُورَةُ الفَتْح


Certainly was Allah pleased with the believers when they pledged allegiance to you, ˹O Muhammad˺, under the tree, and He knew what was in their hearts, so He sent down tranquillity upon them and rewarded them with an imminent conquest  

Verily God was pleased with the believers when they pledged allegiance to you, at al-Hudaybiyya, under the tree, this was an acacia — they ˹these believers˺ numbered 1300 or more; he took an oath of allegiance from them that they would fight against Quraysh and not ˹attempt to˺ flee from death. And He, God, knew what was in their hearts, of sincerity and loyalty, so He sent down the spirit of Peace upon them, and rewarded them with a near victory, which was the conquest of Khaybar, following their departure from al601 Hudaybiyya,

لَقَدْ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُونَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ فَعَلِمَ مَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأَنْزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَثَابَهُمْ فَتْحًا قَرِيبًا  

{لقد رضي الله عن المؤمنين إذ يبايعونك} بالحديبية {تحت الشجرة} هي سمرة، وهم ألف وثلثمائة أو أكثر ثم بايعهم على أن يناجزوا قريشا وأن لا يفروا من الموت {فعلم} الله {ما في قلوبهم} من الصدق والوفاء {فأنزل السكينة عليهم وأثابهم فتحا قريبا} هو فتح خيبر بعد انصرافهم من الحديبية.

And much war booty which they will take. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise.  

and abundant spoils which they will capture, from Khaybar, and God is ever Mighty, Wise, that is to say, He is ever possessed of such attributes.

وَمَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً يَأْخُذُونَهَا ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا  

{ومغانم كبيرة يأخذونها} من خيبر {وكان الله عزيزا حكيما} أي لم يزل متصفا بذلك.

Allah has promised you much booty that you will take ˹in the future˺ and has hastened for you this ˹victory˺ and withheld the hands of people from you - that it may be a sign for the believers and ˹that˺ He may guide you to a straight path.  

God has promised you abundant spoils which you will capture, through the ˹various˺ conquests. So He has expedited this one, the spoils of Khaybar, for you, and withheld men’s hands from you, with regard to your families, after you had set off ˹on the campaign˺, as the Jews had intended ˹to plot˺ against them; but God cast terror into their hearts; so that it, the expedited one (wa-li-takūna is a supplement to an implied verb, that is to say, li-tashkurūhu, ‘that you may give thanks to Him’) may be a sign for the believers, of their being assisted ˹by God˺, and that He may guide you on a straight path, that is to say, the way in which you should rely on Him and entrust any affair to Him, exalted be He;

وَعَدَكُمُ اللَّهُ مَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً تَأْخُذُونَهَا فَعَجَّلَ لَكُمْ هَٰذِهِ وَكَفَّ أَيْدِيَ النَّاسِ عَنْكُمْ وَلِتَكُونَ آيَةً لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَيَهْدِيَكُمْ صِرَاطًا مُسْتَقِيمًا  

{وعدكم الله مغانم كثيرة تأخذونها} من الفتوحات {فعجَّل لكم هذه} غنيمة خيبر {وكفَّ أيدي الناس عنكم} في عيالكم لما خرجتم وهمت بهم اليهود فقذف الله في قلوبهم الرعب {ولتكون} أي المعجلة عطف على مقدر، أي لتشكروه {آية للمؤمنين} في نصرهم {ويهديكم صراطا مستقيما} أي طريق التوكل عليه وتفويض الأمر إليه تعالى.

And ˹He promises˺ other ˹victories˺ that you were ˹so far˺ unable to ˹realize˺ which Allah has already encompassed. And ever is Allah, over all things, competent.  

and others (wa-ukhrā is an adjectival qualification of the implied subject maghānima, ‘spoils’) which you were not able to capture — namely, ˹spoils˺ from the Persians and the Byzantines; God has verily encompassed these ˹already˺, that is to say, He knows that they will be yours. And God has power over all things, that is to say, He is ever possessed of such an attribute.

وَأُخْرَىٰ لَمْ تَقْدِرُوا عَلَيْهَا قَدْ أَحَاطَ اللَّهُ بِهَا ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرًا  

{وأخرى} صفة مغانم مقدرا مبتدأ {لم تقدروا عليها} هي من فارس والروم {قد أحاط الله بها} علم أنها ستكون لكم {وكان الله على كل شيء قديرا} أي لم يزل متصفا بذلك.

And if those ˹Makkans˺ who disbelieve had fought you, they would have turned their backs ˹in flight˺. Then they would not find a protector or a helper.  

And if those who disbelieve had fought you, at al-Hudaybiyya, they would have turned their backs ˹to flee˺ — then they would not have found any protector, to guard them, or helper.

وَلَوْ قَاتَلَكُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوَلَّوُا الْأَدْبَارَ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُونَ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا  

{ولو قاتلكم الذين كفروا} بالحديبية {لولّوا الأدبار ثم لا يجدون وليا} يحرسهم {ولا نصيرا}.

˹This is˺ the established way of Allah which has occurred before. And never will you find in the way of Allah any change.  

˹That is˺ the way of God (sunnata’Llāhi is a verbal noun emphasising the import of the preceding sentence about the defeat of the disbelievers and the victory of the believers, that is to say, sanna’Llāhu dhālika sunnatan, ‘God has established this as ˹His˺ way ˹of dealing with believers and disbelievers˺’) which has taken its course before, and you will never find in God’s way any change, by Him.

سُنَّةَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي قَدْ خَلَتْ مِنْ قَبْلُ ۖ وَلَنْ تَجِدَ لِسُنَّةِ اللَّهِ تَبْدِيلًا  

{سنة الله} مصدر مؤكد لمضمون الجملة قبله من هزيمة الكافرين ونصر المؤمنين، أي سَنَّ الله ذلك سُنَّة {التي قد خلت من قبل ولن تجد لسنة الله تبديلا} منه.

And it is He who withheld their hands from you and your hands from them within ˹the area of˺ Makkah after He caused you to overcome them. And ever is Allah of what you do, Seeing.  

And it is He Who withheld their hands from you, and your hands from them, in the valley of Mecca, at alHudaybiyya, after He had made you victors over them: for eighty of them surrounded your camp in order to inflict losses upon you, but they were captured and taken to the Prophet (s), who pardoned them and set them free, and this resulted in the truce. And God is ever Seer of what you do (read ta‘malūna, or ya‘malūna, ‘they do’), that is to say, He is ever possessed of this attribute.

وَهُوَ الَّذِي كَفَّ أَيْدِيَهُمْ عَنْكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ عَنْهُمْ بِبَطْنِ مَكَّةَ مِنْ بَعْدِ أَنْ أَظْفَرَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرًا  

{وهو الذي كف أيديهم عنكم وأيديكم عنهم ببطن مكة} بالحديبية {من بعد أن أظفركم عليهم} فإن ثمانين منهم طافوا بعسكركم ليصيبوا منكم فأخذوا وأتي بهم إلى رسول الله ﷺ فعفا عنهم وخلى سبيلهم فكان ذلك سبب الصلح {وكان الله بما يعملون بصيرا} بالياء والتاء، أي لم يزل متصفا بذلك.

They are the ones who disbelieved and obstructed you from al-Masjid al-Haram while the offering was prevented from reaching its place of sacrifice. And if not for believing men and believing women whom you did not know - that you might trample them and there would befall you because of them dishonor without ˹your˺ knowledge - ˹you would have been permitted to enter Makkah˺. ˹This was so˺ that Allah might admit to His mercy whom He willed. If they had been apart ˹from them˺, We would have punished those who disbelieved among them with painful punishment  

They are the ones who disbelieved and barred you from the Sacred Mosque, that is, ˹barred you˺ from reaching it, and ˹prevented˺ the offering (wa’l-hadya is a supplement to the ˹suffixed pronoun˺ –kum, ‘you’ ˹of saddūkum, ‘they barred you’˺), which was detained (ma‘kūfan is a circumstantial qualifier), from reaching its destination, that is, ˹from˺ the place at which it is customarily sacrificed, namely, the Sanctuary ˹itself˺ (an yablugha mahillahu, is an inclusive substitution). And were it not for ˹some of˺ the believing men and believing women, being present at Mecca alongside the disbelievers, whom you did not know, to be believers — lest you should trample them, that is to say, ˹lest˺ you should slay them together with the disbelievers, had you been given permission to embark on the conquest (an tata’ūhum is an inclusive substitution for –hum, ‘them’ ˹of lam ta‘lamūhum, ‘whom you did not know’˺), and thus incur sin on account of them without, your, knowing, it … (the third person pronouns in both groups ˹of people˺ predominantly imply males; the response to lawlā, ‘were it not’, has been omitted ˹through ellipsis˺, being ˹something along the lines of˺ la-udhina lakum fī’l-fathi, ‘you would have been permitted to embark on the conquest’), but permission for this was not given at the time, so that God may admit into His mercy whom He will, such as those believers mentioned. Had they been clearly separated, ˹had˺ they ˹the believers˺ been distinguishable from the disbelievers, We would have surely chastised the disbelievers among them, of the people of Mecca ˹immediately˺ thereat, by permitting you to go ahead with the conquest thereof, with a painful chastisement.

هُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْهَدْيَ مَعْكُوفًا أَنْ يَبْلُغَ مَحِلَّهُ ۚ وَلَوْلَا رِجَالٌ مُؤْمِنُونَ وَنِسَاءٌ مُؤْمِنَاتٌ لَمْ تَعْلَمُوهُمْ أَنْ تَطَئُوهُمْ فَتُصِيبَكُمْ مِنْهُمْ مَعَرَّةٌ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۖ لِيُدْخِلَ اللَّهُ فِي رَحْمَتِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۚ لَوْ تَزَيَّلُوا لَعَذَّبْنَا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا  

{هم الذين كفروا وصدوكم عن المسجد الحرام} أي عن الوصول إليه {والهدي} معطوف على كم {معكوفا} محبوسا حال {أن يبلغ محله} أي مكانه الذي ينحر فيه عادة وهو الحرم بدل اشتمال {ولولا رجال مؤمنون ونساء مؤمنات} موجودون بمكة مع الكفار {لم تعلموهم} بصفة الإيمان {أن تطئوهم} أي تقتلوهم مع الكفار لو أذن لكم في الفتح بدل اشتمال من هم {فتصيبكم منهم معرة} أي إثم {بغير علم} منكم به وضمائر الغيبة للصنفين بتغليب الذكور، وجواب لولا محذوف، أي لأذن لكم في الفتح لكن لم يؤذن فيه حينئذ {ليدخل الله في رحمته من يشاء} كالمؤمنين المذكورين {لو تزيَّلوا} تميزوا عن الكفار {لعذَّبنا الذين كفروا منهم} من أهل مكة حينئذ بأن نأذن لكم في فتحها {عذابا أليما} مؤلما.

When those who disbelieved had put into their hearts chauvinism - the chauvinism of the time of ignorance. But Allah sent down His tranquillity upon His Messenger and upon the believers and imposed upon them the word of righteousness, and they were more deserving of it and worthy of it. And ever is Allah, of all things, Knowing.  

When those who disbelieve (alladhīna kafarū is the subject ˹of the following verb ja‘ala˺) nourished (idh ja‘ala is semantically connected to ‘adhdhabnā) in their hearts zealotry (al-hamiyya, ˹means˺ ‘disdain of something’), the zealotry of pagandom (hamiyyata’l-jāhiliyyati substitutes for al-hamiyyata, ‘zealotry’), namely, their barring of the Prophet and his Companions from ˹visiting˺ the Sacred Mosque, ˹but˺ then God sent down His spirit of Peace upon His Messenger and the believers, and so they ˹the disbelievers˺ made a truce with them on the condition that they ˹the believers˺ would ˹be allowed to˺ return the following year, and ˹such˺ zealotry would not overcome them ˹the believers˺ as it did the disbelievers ˹then˺ until they would come to fight them ˹later˺, and He made them, the believers, abide by the word of God-fearing (kalimata’l-taqwā): ‘there is no god except God, ˹and˺ Muhammad is His Messenger’ (it ˹kalima, ‘word’˺ is annexed to al-taqwā because it is the cause of it), for they were worthier of it, of the word, than the disbelievers, and deserving of it (wa-ahlahā is an explanatory supplement). And God is ever Knower of all things, that is to say, He is ever possessed of such an attribute, and among the things He knows is that they are worthy of it.

إِذْ جَعَلَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الْحَمِيَّةَ حَمِيَّةَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ وَعَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَلْزَمَهُمْ كَلِمَةَ التَّقْوَىٰ وَكَانُوا أَحَقَّ بِهَا وَأَهْلَهَا ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا  

{إذ جعل} متعلق بعذبنا {الذين كفروا} فاعل {في قلوبهم الحمية} الأنفة من الشيء {حمية الجاهلية} بدل من الحمية وهي صدهم النبي وأصحابه عن المسجد الحرام {فأنزل الله سكينته على رسول وعلى المؤمنين} فصالحوهم على أن يعودوا من قابل ولم يلحقهم من الحمية ما لحق الكفار حتى يقاتلوهم {وألزمهم} أي المؤمنين {كلمة التقوى} لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله وأضيفت إلى التقوى لأنها سببها {وكانوا أحق بها} بالكلمة من الكفار {وأهلها} عطف تفسيري {وكان الله بكل شيء عليما} أي لم يزل منصفا بذلك ومن معلومة تعالى أنهم أهلها.