48. Sūrat al-Fatḥ

٤٨۔ سُورَةُ الفَتْح

48.4 Vision to conquer Makkah is shown to the Holy Prophet and characteristics of Muhammad (pbuh) and his followers.

٤٨۔٤ مقطع في سُورَةُ الفَتْح


Certainly has Allah showed to His Messenger the vision in truth. You will surely enter al-Masjid al-Haram, if Allah wills, in safety, with your heads shaved and ˹hair˺ shortened, not fearing ˹anyone˺. He knew what you did not know and has arranged before that a conquest near ˹at hand˺.  

Verily God has fulfilled the vision for His Messenger in all truth: The Messenger of God (s) saw in his sleep, in the year of al-Hudaybiyya before his departure ˹from Medina˺, that he would enter Mecca together with his Companions safely, whereafter they would shave ˹completely˺ or shorten ˹their hair˺. He informed his Companions of this and they rejoiced. But when they set off with him ˹from Medina˺, and the disbelievers impeded them at al-Hudaybiyya such that they had to retreat, which was distressing for them, for some of the hypocrites began to have doubts ˹about the Prophet’s sincerity˺, this ˹verse˺ was revealed (bi’l-haqqi, ‘in all truth’, is semantically connected to sadaqa, ‘fulfilled’, or it is a circumstantial qualifier referring to al-ru’yā, ‘the vision’, and what comes after it is the explanation thereof): ‘You will assuredly enter the Sacred Mosque, God willing — this is ˹said˺ to secure blessings — in safety, to shave your heads, that is, all the hair, or to shorten ˹it˺, ˹to shorten˺ some of the hair (both muhalliqīna and muqassirīna are implied circumstantial qualifiers), without any fear’, ever. So He knew, ˹there to be˺ in the truce, what you did not know, in the way of reconciliation ˹between the believers and the Meccans˺, and assigned ˹you˺ before that, entry, a near victory, namely, the conquest of Khaybar — the vision was fulfilled in the following year.

لَقَدْ صَدَقَ اللَّهُ رَسُولَهُ الرُّؤْيَا بِالْحَقِّ ۖ لَتَدْخُلُنَّ الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ آمِنِينَ مُحَلِّقِينَ رُءُوسَكُمْ وَمُقَصِّرِينَ لَا تَخَافُونَ ۖ فَعَلِمَ مَا لَمْ تَعْلَمُوا فَجَعَلَ مِنْ دُونِ ذَٰلِكَ فَتْحًا قَرِيبًا  

{لقد صدق الله رسوله الرؤيا بالحقِّ} رأى رسول الله ﷺ في النوم عام الحديبية قبل خروجه أنه يدخل مكة هو وأصحابه آمنين ويحلقون ويقصرون فأخبر بذلك أصحابه ففرحوا فلما خرجوا معه وصدهم الكفار بالحديبية ورجعوا وشق عليهم ذلك وراب بعض المنافقين نزلت، وقوله بالحق متعلق بصدق أو حال من الرؤيا وما بعدها تفسيرها {لتدخلنِّ المسجد الحرام إنْ شاء الله} للتبرك {آمنين محلقين رءوسكم} أي جميع شعورها {ومقصرين} بعض شعورها وهما حالان مقدرتان {لا تخافون} أبدا {فعلم} في الصلح {ما لم تعلموا} من الصلاح {فجعل من دون ذلك} أي الدخول {فتحا قريبا} هو فتح خيبر وتحققت الرؤيا في العام القابل.

It is He who sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth to manifest it over all religion. And sufficient is Allah as Witness.  

It is He Who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth, that He may make it, that is, the religion of truth, prevail over all religion, over all the other religions. And God suffices as witness, to the fact that you have been sent with what has been mentioned, as God, exalted be He, says:

هُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَدِينِ الْحَقِّ لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا  

{هو الذي أرسل رسوله بالهدى ودين الحقّ ليظهره} أي دين الحق {على الدين كله} على جميع باقي الأديان {وكفى بالله شهيدا} أنك مرسل بما ذكر كما قال الله تعالى.

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; and those with him are forceful against the disbelievers, merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating ˹in prayer˺, seeking bounty from Allah and ˹His˺ pleasure. Their mark is on their faces from the trace of prostration. That is their description in the Torah. And their description in the Gospel is as a plant which produces its offshoots and strengthens them so they grow firm and stand upon their stalks, delighting the sowers - so that Allah may enrage by them the disbelievers. Allah has promised those who believe and do righteous deeds among them forgiveness and a great reward.  

Muhammad (the subject) is the Messenger of God (its predicate) and those who are with him, that is, his Companions from among the believers (wa’lladhīna ma‘ahu, ˹another˺ subject, the predicate of which ˹is the following, ashiddā’u˺) are hard, tough, against the disbelievers, showing them no mercy ˹but˺, merciful among themselves (ruhamā’u is a second predicate ˹of wa’lladhīna ma‘ahu, ‘and those who are with him’˺), that is to say, they show mutual sympathy and affection for one another, much like a father and a son. You see, you observe, them bowing, prostrating ˹in worship˺ (both rukka‘an and sujjadan are circumstantial qualifiers). They seek (yabtaghūna is the beginning of a new sentence) bounty from God and beatitude. Their mark (sīmāhum is a subject), their distinguishing feature, is on their faces (fī wujūhihim is its predicate): this is a light and a radiance by which, in the Hereafter, they will be recognised as having been those who used to prostrate in this world, from the effect of prostration (min athari’l-sujūdi is semantically connected to the same thing to which the predicate is semantically connected, that is to say, kā’inatan, ‘˹this˺ being ˹from the effect of prostration˺’; syntactically, it is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject ˹of kā’inatan˺, which is also the subject of the predicate ˹sc. wujūhihim, ‘their faces’˺). That, mentioned description, is their description (mathaluhum is the subject) in the Torah (fī’l-tawrāti is the predicate thereof); and their description in the Gospel (wa-mathaluhum fī’l-injīli, is a subject, the predicate of which is ˹what follows˺) is as a seed that sends forth its shoot (read shat’ahu or shata’ahu) and strengthens it (read āzarahu or azarahu), nourishing it and assisting it, and it grows stout and rises firmly, becoming strong and upright, upon its stalk, its roots (sūq is the plural of sāq), delighting the sowers, that is to say those who planted it, on account of its fairness. The Companions, may God be pleased with them, are being described in this way, for at the outset they were weak and very few in number; but then their number grew and they acquired strength in the most wholesome way, so that He may enrage the disbelievers by them (li-yaghīza bihimu’l-kuffāra is semantically connected to an omitted clause, which is suggested by what preceded, that is to say, ‘they are likened to this ˹so that God may enrage the disbelievers˺’). God has promised those of them who believe and perform righteous deeds, the Companions (minhum, ‘of them’: min, ‘of’, is an indicator of the genus and not partitive, for they are all possessed of the mentioned attributes) forgiveness and a great reward — Paradise. Both of these ˹rewards˺ will also be given to those who will come after them, as is stated in other verses. Meccan, consisting of 18 verses.

مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا ۖ سِيمَاهُمْ فِي وُجُوهِهِمْ مِنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ ۚ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنْجِيلِ كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهُ فَآزَرَهُ فَاسْتَغْلَظَ فَاسْتَوَىٰ عَلَىٰ سُوقِهِ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّارَ ۗ وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنْهُمْ مَغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا  

{محمد} مبتدأ {رسول الله} خبره والذين معه} أي أصحابه من المؤمنين مبتدأ خبره {أشداء} غلاظ {على الكفار} لا يرحمونهم {رحماء بينهم} خبر ثان، أي متعاطفون متوادون كالوالد مع الولد {تراهم} تبصرهم {ركعا سجدا} حالان {يبتغون} مستأنف يطلبون {فضلا من الله ورضوانا سيماهم} علامتهم مبتدأ {في وجوههم} خبره وهو نور وبياض يُعرفون به في الآخرة أنهم سجدوا في الدنيا {من أثر السجود} متعلق بما تعلق به الخبر، أي كائنة وأعرب حالا من ضميره المنتقل إلى الخبر {ذلك} الوصف المذكور {مثلهم} صفتهم مبتدأ {في التوراة} خبره {ومثلهم في الإنجيل} مبتدأ خبره {كزرع أخرج شطأه} بسكون الطاء وفتحها: فراخه {فآزره} بالمد والقصر قواه وأعانه {فاستغلظ} غلظ {فاستوى} قوي واستقام {على سوقه} أصوله جمع ساق {يعجب الزراع} أي زرَّاعه لحسنه، مثل الصحابة ؓ بذلك لأنهم بدأوا في قلة وضعف فكثروا وقووا على أحسن الوجوه {ليغيظ بهم الكفار} متعلق بمحذوف دل عليه ما قبله، أي شبهوا بذلك {وعد الله الذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات منهم} الصحابة ومن لبيان الجنس لا للتبعيض لأنهم كلهم بالصفة المذكورة {مغفرة وأجرا عظيما} الجنة وهما لمن بعدهم أيضا في آيات.