49. Sūrat al-Ḥujurāt

٤٩۔ سُورَةُ الحُجُرات

49.1 God's commandment to lower one's voice in the presence of the Holy Prophet. Make peace between the believers if they fall into fighting among themselves.

٤٩۔١ مقطع في سُورَةُ الحُجُرات

quran:49:1In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.

O you who have believed, do not put ˹yourselves˺ before Allah and His Messenger but fear Allah. Indeed, Allah is Hearing and Knowing.  

O you who believe, do not venture ahead of (tuqaddimū, ˹derives˺ from qaddama, with the sense of ˹the 5th form˺ taqaddama), that is to say, do not come forward with any ˹unwarranted˺ saying or deed ˹ahead of˺, God and His Messenger, the one communicating ˹the Message˺ from Him, that is to say, without their permission, and fear God. Surely God is Hearer, of your sayings, Knower, of your deeds: this was revealed regarding the dispute between Abū Bakr and ‘Umar, may God be pleased with them both, in the presence of the Prophet (s), over the appointment of al-Aqra‘ b. Hābis or al-Qa‘qā‘ b. Ma‘bad as commander ˹of his tribe˺.
القرآن:٤٩:١بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ  

{يا أيها الذين آمنوا لا تقدموا} من قدم بمعنى تقدم، أي لا تَقَدَّمُوا بقول ولا فعل {بين يدي الله ورسوله} المبلغ عنه، أي بغير إذنهما {واتقوا الله إن الله سميع} لقولكم {عليم} بفعلكم، نزلت في مجادلة أبي بكر وعمر ؓ عند النبي ﷺ في تأمير الأقرع بن حابس أو القعقاع بن معبد ونزل فيمن رفع صوته عند النبي ﷺ .

O you who have believed, do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet or be loud to him in speech like the loudness of some of you to others, lest your deeds become worthless while you perceive not.  

The following was revealed regarding those who raised their voices in the presence of the Prophet (s): O you who believe, do not raise your voices — when you ˹want to˺ speak — above the voice of the Prophet, when he is speaking, and do not shout words at him, when you ˹wish to˺ confide in him, as you shout to one another, but ˹speak˺ lower than that, out of reverence for him, lest your works should be invalidated without your being aware, that is to say, for fear of this ˹happening˺ as a result of the raising of voices and the shouting mentioned.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَرْفَعُوا أَصْوَاتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِيِّ وَلَا تَجْهَرُوا لَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ كَجَهْرِ بَعْضِكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ أَنْ تَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالُكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ لَا تَشْعُرُونَ  

{يا أيها الذين آمنوا لا ترفعوا أصواتكم} إذا نطقتم {فوق صوت النبي} إذا نطق {ولا تجهروا له بالقول} إذا ناجيتموه {كجهر بعضكم لبعض} بل دون ذلك إجلالا له {أن تحبط أعمالكم وأنتم لا تشعرون} أي خشية ذلك بالرفع والجهر المذكورين، ونزل فيمن كان يخفض صوته عند النبي ﷺ كأبي بكر وعمر وغيرهما ؓ.

Indeed, those who lower their voices before the Messenger of Allah - they are the ones whose hearts Allah has tested for righteousness. For them is forgiveness and great reward.  

The following was revealed regarding those who used to lower their voices in the presence of the Prophet (s), such as Abū Bakr, ‘Umar and others, may God be pleased with ˹all of˺ them: Truly those who lower their voices in the presence of God’s Messenger — they are the ones whose hearts God has tested for Godfearing, that is to say, ˹He has tested them˺ so that this ˹fear of God˺ may manifest itself in them. For them will be forgiveness and a great reward: Paradise.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَغُضُّونَ أَصْوَاتَهُمْ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ امْتَحَنَ اللَّهُ قُلُوبَهُمْ لِلتَّقْوَىٰ ۚ لَهُمْ مَغْفِرَةٌ وَأَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ  

{إن الذين يغضون أصواتهم عند رسول الله أولئك الذين امتحن} اختبر {الله قلوبهم للتقوى} أي لتظهر منهم {لهم مغفرة وأجر عظيم} الجنة، ونزل في قوم جاءُوا وقت الظهيرة والنبي ﷺ في منزله فنادوه.

Indeed, those who call you, ˹O Muhammad˺, from behind the chambers - most of them do not use reason.  

The following was revealed regarding a group of people who came to see the Prophet (s) during the midday ˹resting˺ period while he was in his house, and called out to him: Truly those who call you from behind the apartments, the ˹private˺ chambers of his womenfolk (hujurāt is the plural of hujra, which is an area of ground on which stones are laid ˹yuhjaru ‘alayhi˺ to form a wall or the like), and it happened that each one of them called out, in that rough and crude Bedouin manner, from behind one of the apartments, as they did not know in which apartment he was, most of them do not understand, given the way in which they acted, your exalted status and the reverence that befits it.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُنَادُونَكَ مِنْ وَرَاءِ الْحُجُرَاتِ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ  

{إن الذين ينادونك من وراء الحجرات} حجرات نسائه ﷺ جمع حجرة وهي ما يحجر عليه من الأرض بحائط ونحوه، وكان كل واحد منهم نادى خلف حجرة لأنهم لم يعلموه في أي حجرة مناداة الأعراب بغلظة وجفاء {أكثرهم لا يعقلون} فيما فعلوه محلَّك الرفيع وما يناسبه من التعظيم.

And if they had been patient until you ˹could˺ come out to them, it would have been better for them. But Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.  

And had they been patient (annahum, ‘they’, has independent status, on account of inceptiveness; alternatively, it is said to govern an implied verb such as thabata, ‘had ˹their patience˺ been maintained’) until you came out to them, it would have been better for them; and God is Forgiving, Merciful, to those of them who repent.

وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ صَبَرُوا حَتَّىٰ تَخْرُجَ إِلَيْهِمْ لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَهُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ  

{ولو أنهم صبروا} أنهم في محل رفع بالابتداء، وقيل فاعل لفعل مقدر، أي ثبت {حتى تخرج إليهم لكان خيرا لهم والله غفور رحيم} لمن تاب منهم، ونزل في الوليد بن عقبة وقد بعثه النبي ﷺ إلى بني المصطلق مصدقا فخافهم لترة كانت بينه وبينهم في الجاهلية فرجع وقال إنهم منعوا الصدقة وهموا بقتله، فهمَّ النبي ﷺ بغزوهم فجاءوا منكرين ما قاله عنهم.

O you who have believed, if there comes to you a disobedient one with information, investigate, lest you harm a people out of ignorance and become, over what you have done, regretful.  

The following was revealed regarding al-Walīd b. ‘Uqba whom the Prophet had sent to the Banū al-Mustaliq in order to ascertain ˹their loyalty to Islam˺. He already feared them on account of an old feud between him and them from the time of pagandom ˹before Islam˺, and so ˹upon seeing them come out to him˺ he returned and claimed that they had refused to give the voluntary alms and intended to kill him. And just as the Prophet (s) was making plans to raid them, they came to him to disavow what he ˹al-Walīd˺ had said about them: O you who believe, if a reprobate should come to you with some tiding, some piece of information, verify ˹it˺, ˹ascertain˺ his truthfulness from his mendacity (fa-tabayyanū: a variant reading has fa-tathabbatū, from al-thabāt, ‘to ascertain’), lest you injure a folk (an tusībū qawman, an object denoting reason), that is to say, for fear of this ˹happening˺, out of ignorance (bi-jahālatin is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject ˹of the verb˺), that is to say while you are ignorant; and then become remorseful of what you have perpetrated, erroneously against that folk. After they had returned to their homelands, the Prophet (s) sent Khālid ˹b. al-Walīd˺ to them, who observed only obedience and goodness in them and ˹later˺ informed the Prophet of this.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنْ جَاءَكُمْ فَاسِقٌ بِنَبَإٍ فَتَبَيَّنُوا أَنْ تُصِيبُوا قَوْمًا بِجَهَالَةٍ فَتُصْبِحُوا عَلَىٰ مَا فَعَلْتُمْ نَادِمِينَ  

{يا أيها الذين آمنوا إن جاءكم فاسق بنبأ} خبر {فتبينوا} صدقه من كذبه، وفي قراءة فتثبتوا من الثبات {أن تصيبوا قوما} مفعول له، أي خشية ذلك {بجهالة} حال من الفاعل، أي جاهلين {فتصبحوا} تصيروا {على ما فعلتم} من الخطأ بالقوم {نادمين} وأرسل ﷺ إليهم بعد عودهم إلى بلادهم خالدا فلم يرَ فيهم إلا الطاعة والخير فأخبر النبي بذلك.

And know that among you is the Messenger of Allah. If he were to obey you in much of the matter, you would be in difficulty, but Allah has endeared to you the faith and has made it pleasing in your hearts and has made hateful to you disbelief, defiance and disobedience. Those are the ˹rightly˺ guided.  

And know that the Messenger of God is among you, so do not speak falsehood, for God will inform him of the ˹real˺ state of affairs. If he were to obey you in many matters, which you communicate contrary to reality, so that the necessary ˹evil˺ consequences ensue, you would surely be in trouble, you would earn in addition to that sin, the sin for the consequences that ensue ˹from your error˺. But God has endeared faith to you, adorning your hearts with it, and He has made odious to you disbelief and immorality and disobedience (˹an instance of˺ suppletion with respect to import, as opposed to ˹lexical˺ form; for the one to whom ‘faith has been endeared …’ and so forth, will naturally be dissimilar in character to the mentioned ˹reprobate˺). Those (there is here a shift from the second ˹to the third˺ person address) — they are the right-minded, the ones firmly established upon ˹the way of˺ their religion;

وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ فِيكُمْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ۚ لَوْ يُطِيعُكُمْ فِي كَثِيرٍ مِنَ الْأَمْرِ لَعَنِتُّمْ وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ حَبَّبَ إِلَيْكُمُ الْإِيمَانَ وَزَيَّنَهُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ وَكَرَّهَ إِلَيْكُمُ الْكُفْرَ وَالْفُسُوقَ وَالْعِصْيَانَ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الرَّاشِدُونَ  

{واعلموا أن فيكم رسول الله} فلا تقولوا الباطل فإن الله يخبره بالحال {لو يطيعكم في كثير من الأمر} الذي تخبرون به على خلاف الواقع فيرتب على ذلك مقتضاه {لعنتُّم} لأثمتم دونه إثم التسبب إلى المرتب {ولكن الله حبَّب إليكم الإيمان وزينه} حسنه {في قلوبكم وكرَّه إليكم الكفر والفسوق والعصيان} استدراك من حيث المعنى دون اللفظ لأن من حبب إليه الإيمان إلخ غايرت صفته صفة من تقدم ذكره {أولئك هم} فيه التفات عن الخطاب {الراشدون} الثابتون على دينهم.

˹It is˺ as bounty from Allah and favor. And Allah is Knowing and Wise.  

˹that is˺ a favour from God (fadlan is a verbal noun, in the accusative because of the implied verbal action, that is, afdala, ‘He gives a favour’) and a grace, from Him, and God is Knower, of them, Wise, in His bestowal of graces on them.

فَضْلًا مِنَ اللَّهِ وَنِعْمَةً ۚ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ  

{فضلا من الله} مصدر منصوب بفعله المقدر، أي أفضل {ونعمة} منه {والله عليم} بهم {حكيم} في إنعامه عليهم.

And if two factions among the believers should fight, then make settlement between the two. But if one of them oppresses the other, then fight against the one that oppresses until it returns to the ordinance of Allah. And if it returns, then make settlement between them in justice and act justly. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly.  

And if two parties of believers (in tā’ifatāni mina’l-mu’minīna ... ˹to the end of˺ the verse, was revealed regarding a particular incident where the Prophet (s) was riding a donkey and happened to pass by Ibn Ubayy; the donkey urinated and so Ibn Ubayy held his nose, whereupon ˹‘Abd Allāh˺ Ibn Rawāhā said, ‘By God, the smell of the donkey’s urine is sweeter-smelling than your musk. Fighting then ensued between the two clans with fists, sandals and palm branches ˹being thrown about˺) fall to fighting (iqtatalū: the plural is used on account of the ˹plural˺ import, for each party is made up of several individuals; a variant reading has ˹the dual form˺ iqtatalatā), make peace between them (baynahumā: the dual here takes into account the actual ˹dual˺ form ˹of tā’ifatān, ‘two parties’˺). And if one of them aggresses against the other, fight the one which aggresses until it returns to God’s ordinance, ˹to˺ the truth. Then, if it returns, reconcile them, fairly, and act justly. Surely God loves the just.

وَإِنْ طَائِفَتَانِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ اقْتَتَلُوا فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا ۖ فَإِنْ بَغَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا عَلَى الْأُخْرَىٰ فَقَاتِلُوا الَّتِي تَبْغِي حَتَّىٰ تَفِيءَ إِلَىٰ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِنْ فَاءَتْ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا بِالْعَدْلِ وَأَقْسِطُوا ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ  

{وإن طائفتان من المؤمنين} الآية، نزلت في قضية هي أن النبي ﷺ ركب حمارا ومر على ابن أبيّ فبال الحمار فسد ابن أبيّ أنفه فقال ابن رواحة: والله لبول حماره أطيب ريحا من مسكك فكان بين قوميهما ضرب بالأيدي والنعال والسعف {اقتتلوا} جمع نظرا إلى المعنى لأن كل طائفة جماعة، وقرئ اقتتلتا {فأصلحوا بينهما} ثنى نظرا إلى اللفظ {فإن بغت} تعدت {إحداهما على الأخرى فقاتلوا التي تبغي حتى تفيء} ترجع {إلى أمر الله} الحق {فإن فاءت فأصلحوا بينهما بالعدل} بالإنصاف {وأقسطوا} اعدلوا {إن الله يحب المقسطين}.

The believers are but brothers, so make settlement between your brothers. And fear Allah that you may receive mercy.  

The believers are indeed brothers, in religion. Therefore ˹always˺ make peace between your brethren, when they fall into dispute with one another (a variant reading ˹for the dual form akhawaykum, ‘your two brethren’˺ has ikhwatakum, ‘your brothers’) and fear God, so that perhaps you might receive mercy.

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ  

{إنما المؤمنون إخوة} في الدين {فأصلحوا بين أخويكم} إذا تنازعا، وقرئ إخوتكم بالفوقانية {واتقوا الله لعلكم ترحمون}.