65. Sūrat al-Ṭalāq

٦٥۔ سُورَةُ الطَّلاق

Divorce (Medinan)

quran:65:1In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.

O Prophet, when you ˹Muslims˺ divorce women, divorce them for ˹the commencement of˺ their waiting period and keep count of the waiting period, and fear Allah, your Lord. Do not turn them out of their ˹husbands'˺ houses, nor should they ˹themselves˺ leave ˹during that period˺ unless they are committing a clear immorality. And those are the limits ˹set by˺ Allah. And whoever transgresses the limits of Allah has certainly wronged himself. You know not; perhaps Allah will bring about after that a ˹different˺ matter.  

O Prophet, meaning ˹to address˺ his community, on account of what follows; or, ˹it means˺ say to them: when you ˹men˺ divorce women, when you intend to ˹effect a˺ divorce, divorce them by their prescribed period, at the beginning of it, such that the divorce is effected while she is pure and has not been touched ˹sexually˺, based on the Prophet’s (s) explaining it in this way, ˹as˺ reported by the two Shaykhs ˹al-Bukhārī and Muslim˺. And count the prescribed period, keep record of it, so that you may repeal ˹your decision˺ before it is concluded; and fear God your Lord, obey Him in His commands and prohibitions. Do not expel them from their houses, nor let them go forth, from them until their prescribed period is concluded, unless they commit a blatant ˹act of˺ indecency, ˹such as˺ adultery (read mubayyana or mubayyina, corresponding ˹respectively˺ to buyyinat, ‘one that has been proven’, and bayyina, ‘blatant’), in which case they are brought out in order to carry out the ˹prescribed˺ legal punishment against them. And those, mentioned ˹stipulations˺, are God’s bounds; and whoever transgresses the bounds of God has verily wronged his soul. You never know: it may be that God will bring something new to pass afterwards, ˹after˺ the divorce, ˹such as˺ a retraction, in the event that it was the first or second ˹declaration of divorce˺.
القرآن:٦٥:١بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَطَلِّقُوهُنَّ لِعِدَّتِهِنَّ وَأَحْصُوا الْعِدَّةَ ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ رَبَّكُمْ ۖ لَا تُخْرِجُوهُنَّ مِنْ بُيُوتِهِنَّ وَلَا يَخْرُجْنَ إِلَّا أَنْ يَأْتِينَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ مُبَيِّنَةٍ ۚ وَتِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ ۚ وَمَنْ يَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَ اللَّهِ فَقَدْ ظَلَمَ نَفْسَهُ ۚ لَا تَدْرِي لَعَلَّ اللَّهَ يُحْدِثُ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ أَمْرًا  

{يا أيها النبي} المراد أمته بقرينه ما بعده أو قل لهم {إذا طلقتم النساء} أي أردتم الطلاق {فطلقوهن لعدتهن} لأولها بأن يكون الطلاق في طهر لم تمس فيه لتفسيره ﷺ بذلك، رواه الشيخان {وأحصوا العدة} أحفظوها لتراجعوا قبل فراغها {واتقوا الله ربكم} أطيعوه في أمره ونهيه {لا تخرجوهن من بيوتهن ولا يخرجن} منها حتى تنقضي عدتهن {إلا إن يأتين بفاحشة} زنا {مبيَّنة} بفتح الياء وكسرها، بينت أو بينة فيخرجن لإقامة الحد عليهن {وتلك} المذكورات {حدود الله ومن يتعدَّ حدود الله فقد ظلم نفسه لا تدري لعل الله يحدث بعد ذلك} الطلاق {أمراً} مراجعة فيما إذا كان واحدة أو اثنتين.

And when they have ˹nearly˺ fulfilled their term, either retain them according to acceptable terms or part with them according to acceptable terms. And bring to witness two just men from among you and establish the testimony for ˹the acceptance of˺ Allah. That is instructed to whoever should believe in Allah and the Last day. And whoever fears Allah - He will make for him a way out  

Then, when they have reached their term, ˹when˺ they are near the end of their prescribed period, retain them, by taking them back, honourably, without coercion, or separate from them honourably, leave them to conclude their waiting period and do not compel them to go back ˹to you˺. And call to witness two just men from among yourselves, ˹to witness˺ the retraction or the separation, and bear witness for the sake of God, and not ˹merely˺ for the sake of what is being witnessed or for the sake of the man. By this is exhorted whoever believes in God and the Last Day. And whoever fears God, He will make a way out for him, from the distress of this world and the Hereafter;

فَإِذَا بَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَأَمْسِكُوهُنَّ بِمَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ فَارِقُوهُنَّ بِمَعْرُوفٍ وَأَشْهِدُوا ذَوَيْ عَدْلٍ مِنْكُمْ وَأَقِيمُوا الشَّهَادَةَ لِلَّهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ يُوعَظُ بِهِ مَنْ كَانَ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۚ وَمَنْ يَتَّقِ اللَّهَ يَجْعَلْ لَهُ مَخْرَجًا  

{فإذا بلغن أجلهن} قاربن انقضاء عدتهن {فأمسكوهن} بأن تراجعوهن {بمعروف} من غير ضرار {أو فارقوهن بمعروف} أتركوهن حتى تنقضي عدتهن ولا تضاروهن بالمراجعة {وأشهدوا ذوي عدلٍ منكم} على المراجعة أو الفراق {وأقيموا الشهادة لله} لا للمشهود عليه أو له {ذلكم يوعظ به من كان يؤمن بالله واليوم الآخر ومن يتق الله يجعل له مخرجاً} من كرب الدنيا والآخرة.

And will provide for him from where he does not expect. And whoever relies upon Allah - then He is sufficient for him. Indeed, Allah will accomplish His purpose. Allah has already set for everything a ˹decreed˺ extent.  

and He will provide for him from whence he never expected, ˹from whence˺ it never occurred to him. And whoever puts his trust in God, regarding his affairs, He will suffice him. Indeed God fulfils His command, His will (a variant reading ˹for bālighun amrahu˺ has the genitive construction ˹bālighu amrihi˺). Verily God has ordained for everything, ˹even things˺ such as comfort and hardship, a measure, a fixed time.

وَيَرْزُقْهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا يَحْتَسِبُ ۚ وَمَنْ يَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ فَهُوَ حَسْبُهُ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بَالِغُ أَمْرِهِ ۚ قَدْ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدْرًا  

{ويرزقه من حيث لا يحتسب} يخطر بباله {ومن يتوكل على الله} في أموره {فهو حسبه} كافية {إن الله بالغٌ أمرَه} مراده وفي قراءة بالإضافة {قد جعل الله لكل شيء} كرخاء وشدة {قدرا} ميقاتا.

And those who no longer expect menstruation among your women - if you doubt, then their period is three months, and ˹also for˺ those who have not menstruated. And for those who are pregnant, their term is until they give birth. And whoever fears Allah - He will make for him of his matter ease.  

And ˹as for˺ those of your women who (read allā’ī or allā’i in both instances) no longer expect to menstruate, if you have any doubts, about their waiting period, their prescribed ˹waiting˺ period shall be three months, and ˹also for˺ those who have not yet menstruated, because of their young age, their period shall ˹also˺ be three months — both cases apply to other than those whose spouses have died; for these ˹latter˺ their period is prescribed in the verse: they shall wait by themselves for four months and ten ˹days˺ ˹Q. 2:234˺. And those who are pregnant, their term, the conclusion of their prescribed ˹waiting˺ period if divorced or if their spouses be dead, shall be when they deliver. And whoever fears God, He will make matters ease for him, in this world and in the Hereafter.

وَاللَّائِي يَئِسْنَ مِنَ الْمَحِيضِ مِنْ نِسَائِكُمْ إِنِ ارْتَبْتُمْ فَعِدَّتُهُنَّ ثَلَاثَةُ أَشْهُرٍ وَاللَّائِي لَمْ يَحِضْنَ ۚ وَأُولَاتُ الْأَحْمَالِ أَجَلُهُنَّ أَنْ يَضَعْنَ حَمْلَهُنَّ ۚ وَمَنْ يَتَّقِ اللَّهَ يَجْعَلْ لَهُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ يُسْرًا  

(واللائي) بهمزة وياء وبلا ياء في الموضعين (يئسن من المحيض) بمعنى الحيض (من نسائكم إن ارتبتم) شككتم في عدتهن (فعدتهن ثلاثة أشهر واللائي لم يحضن) لصغرهن فعدتهن ثلاثة أشهر والمسألتان في غير المتوفي عنهن أزواجهن أما هن فعدتهن ما في آية "" يتربصن بأنفسهن أربعة أشهر وعشرا "" (وأولات الأحمال أجلهن) انقضاء عدتهن مطلقات أو متوفى عنهن أزواجهن (أن يضعن حملهن ومن يتق الله يجعل له من أمره يسرا) في الدنيا والآخرة.

That is the command of Allah, which He has sent down to you; and whoever fears Allah - He will remove for him his misdeeds and make great for him his reward.  

That, which is mentioned regarding the prescribed ˹waiting˺ period, is God’s command, His ruling, which He has revealed to you. And whoever fears God, He will absolve him of his misdeeds and magnify the reward for him.

ذَٰلِكَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ أَنْزَلَهُ إِلَيْكُمْ ۚ وَمَنْ يَتَّقِ اللَّهَ يُكَفِّرْ عَنْهُ سَيِّئَاتِهِ وَيُعْظِمْ لَهُ أَجْرًا  

{ذلك} المذكور في العدة {أمر الله} حكمه {أنزله إليكم ومن يتق الله يكفر عنه سيئاته ويعظم له أجرا}.

Lodge them ˹in a section˺ of where you dwell out of your means and do not harm them in order to oppress them. And if they should be pregnant, then spend on them until they give birth. And if they breastfeed for you, then give them their payment and confer among yourselves in the acceptable way; but if you are in discord, then there may breastfeed for the father another woman.  

Lodge them, that is, the divorced women, where you dwell, that is to say, in some part of your dwellings, in accordance with your means (min wujdikum is an explicative supplement, or a substitution of what precedes it with the repetition of the same preposition ˹min˺ and with an implied genitive annexation, in other words, ˹something like˺ amkinat sa‘atikum, ‘˹house them in˺ the places of your means and not otherwise’) and do not harass them so as to put them in straits, with regard to accommodation, such that they would then need to go elsewhere or ˹be in need of˺ maintenance ˹to provide for themselves˺ so that they ˹are forced to˺ ransom themselves from you. And if they are pregnant, then maintain them until they deliver. Then, if they suckle for you, your children ˹whom you have˺ from them, give them their wages, for the suckling, and consult together, with them, honourably, with kindness, for the sake of the children, by mutual agreement on a fixed wage for the suckling. But if you both make difficulties, regarding the suckling, with either the father withholding ˹payment of˺ the wage or the mother refraining from performing it, then another woman will suckle ˹the child˺ for him, for the father, and the mother should not be compelled to suckle it.

أَسْكِنُوهُنَّ مِنْ حَيْثُ سَكَنْتُمْ مِنْ وُجْدِكُمْ وَلَا تُضَارُّوهُنَّ لِتُضَيِّقُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ ۚ وَإِنْ كُنَّ أُولَاتِ حَمْلٍ فَأَنْفِقُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ حَتَّىٰ يَضَعْنَ حَمْلَهُنَّ ۚ فَإِنْ أَرْضَعْنَ لَكُمْ فَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ ۖ وَأْتَمِرُوا بَيْنَكُمْ بِمَعْرُوفٍ ۖ وَإِنْ تَعَاسَرْتُمْ فَسَتُرْضِعُ لَهُ أُخْرَىٰ  

{أسكنوهن} أي المطلقات {من حيث سكنتم} أي بعض مساكنكم {من وجدكم} أي سعتكم عطف بيان أو بدل مما قبله بإعادة الجار وتقدير مضاف، أي أمكنة سعتكم لا ما دونها {ولا تضاروهن لتضيقوا عليهن} المساكن فيحتجن إلى الخروج أو النفقة فيفتدين منكم {وإن كن أولات حمل فأنفقوا عليهن حتى يضعن حملهن فإن أرضعن لكم} أولادكم منهن {فآتوهن أجورهن} على الإرضاع {وأتمروا بينكم} وبينهن {بمعروف} بجميل في حق الأولاد بالتوافق على أجر معلوم على الإرضاع {وإن تعاسرتم} تضايقتم في الإرضاع فامتنع الأب من الأجرة والأم من فعله {فسترضع له} للأب {أخرى} ولا تكره الأم على إرضاعه.

Let a man of wealth spend from his wealth, and he whose provision is restricted - let him spend from what Allah has given him. Allah does not charge a soul except ˹according to˺ what He has given it. Allah will bring about, after hardship, ease.  

Let the affluent man expend, on the divorced or the suckling woman, out of his affluence. And let he whose provision has been straitened, restricted, for him, expend of what God has given him, in accordance with his means. God does not charge any soul save except with what He has given it. God will assuredly bring about ease after hardship — which He indeed did by way of the ˹Muslim˺ conquests.

لِيُنْفِقْ ذُو سَعَةٍ مِنْ سَعَتِهِ ۖ وَمَنْ قُدِرَ عَلَيْهِ رِزْقُهُ فَلْيُنْفِقْ مِمَّا آتَاهُ اللَّهُ ۚ لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا مَا آتَاهَا ۚ سَيَجْعَلُ اللَّهُ بَعْدَ عُسْرٍ يُسْرًا  

{لينفق} على المطلقات والمرضعات {ذو سعة من سعته ومن قدر} ضيق {عليه رزقه فلينفق مما آتاه} أعطاه {الله} على قدره {لا يكلف الله نفسا إلا ما آتاها سيجعل الله بعد عسر يسرا} وقد جعله بالفتوح.

And how many a city was insolent toward the command of its Lord and His messengers, so We took it to severe account and punished it with a terrible punishment.  

And how many (ka’ayyin: the kāf is the genitive prepositional particle which has been added to ayy, ‘which’, to give the meaning of kam, ‘how many’) a town — that is to say, many a town, meaning its inhabitants, disobeyed the command of its Lord and His messengers, then We called it, in the Hereafter — even if it has not yet arrived, ˹God says so˺ because of the fact that it will surely come to pass — to a severe reckoning and chastised it with a dire chastisement (read nukran or nukuran), namely, the chastisement of the Fire.

وَكَأَيِّنْ مِنْ قَرْيَةٍ عَتَتْ عَنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّهَا وَرُسُلِهِ فَحَاسَبْنَاهَا حِسَابًا شَدِيدًا وَعَذَّبْنَاهَا عَذَابًا نُكْرًا  

{وكأين} هي كاف الجر دخلت على أي بمعنى كم {من قرية} أي وكثير من القرى {عتت} عصت يعني أهلها {عن أمر ربها ورسله فحاسبناها} في الآخرة وإن لم تجيء لتحقيق وقوعها {حسابا شديدا وعذبناها عذابا نكرا} بسكون الكاف وضمها فظيعا وهو عذاب النار.

And it tasted the bad consequence of its affair, and the outcome of its affair was loss.  

So it tasted the evil consequences of its conduct, the punishment for it, and the consequence of its conduct was ˹utter˺ loss, failure and destruction.

فَذَاقَتْ وَبَالَ أَمْرِهَا وَكَانَ عَاقِبَةُ أَمْرِهَا خُسْرًا  

{فذاقت وبال أمرها} عقوبته {وكان عاقبة أمرها خسرا} خسارا وهلاكا.

Allah has prepared for them a severe punishment; so fear Allah, O you of understanding who have believed. Allah has sent down to you the Qur'an.  

God has prepared for them a severe chastisement (the reiteration of the threat is for emphasis). So fear God, O people of pith, O possessors of intellect, ˹you˺ who believe! (this is a description of the vocative, or an explication of it) God has certainly revealed to you a ˹source of˺ remembrance, that is, the Qur’ān;

أَعَدَّ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ عَذَابًا شَدِيدًا ۖ فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ۚ قَدْ أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ إِلَيْكُمْ ذِكْرًا  

{أعد الله لهم عذابا شديدا} تكرير الوعيد توكيد {فاتقوا الله يا أولي الألباب} أصحاب العقول {الذين آمنوا} نعت للمنادى أو بيان له {قد أنزل الله إليكم ذكرا} هو القرآن.

˹He sent˺ a Messenger ˹Muhammad˺ reciting to you the distinct verses of Allah that He may bring out those who believe and do righteous deeds from darknesses into the light. And whoever believes in Allah and does righteousness - He will admit him into gardens beneath which rivers flow to abide therein forever. Allah will have perfected for him a provision.  

a messenger, that is, Muhammad (s) (rasūlan is in the accusative because of an implied verb, that is to say, wa-arsala, ‘and He sent you ˹a messenger˺’) reciting to you the clear signs of God (read mubayyanāt or mubayyināt, as ˹explained˺ above) that He may bring forth those who believe and perform righteous deeds, after the arrival of the remembrance and the Messenger, from darkness, the disbelief to which they adhered, to light, the faith that was established in them after ˹a life of˺ disbelief. And those who believe in God and act righteously, He will admit them (a variant reading has the first person plural ˹nudkhilhu, ‘We will admit them’˺) into gardens underneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. God has verily made a good provision for him, namely, the provision of Paradise, the bliss of which never ends.

رَسُولًا يَتْلُو عَلَيْكُمْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ مُبَيِّنَاتٍ لِيُخْرِجَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ ۚ وَمَنْ يُؤْمِنْ بِاللَّهِ وَيَعْمَلْ صَالِحًا يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۖ قَدْ أَحْسَنَ اللَّهُ لَهُ رِزْقًا  

{رسولا} أي محمدا ﷺ منصوب بفعل مقدر، أي وأرسل {يتلو عليكم آيات الله مبيَّنات} بفتح الياء وكسرها كما تقدم {ليخرج الذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات} بعد مجيء الذكر والرسول {من الظلمات} الكفر الذي كانوا عليه {إلى النور} الإيمان الذي قام بهم بعد الكفر} ومن يؤمن بالله ويعمل صالحا يدخله} وفي قراءة بالنون {جنات تجري من تحتها الأنهار خالدين فيها أبدا قد أحسن الله له رزقا} هو رزق الجنة التي لا ينقطع نعيمها.

It is Allah who has created seven heavens and of the earth, the like of them. ˹His˺ command descends among them so you may know that Allah is over all things competent and that Allah has encompassed all things in knowledge.  

God it is Who created seven heavens, and of earth the like thereof, that is to say, seven earths. The command, the revelation, descends between them, between the heavens and the earth: Gabriel descends with it from the seventh heaven to the seventh earth, that you may know (li-ta‘lamū is semantically connected to an omitted clause, that is to say, ‘He apprises you of this creation and this sending down ˹that you may know˺’), that God has power over all things and that God encompasses all things in knowledge. Medinese, consists of 12 verses.

اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ وَمِنَ الْأَرْضِ مِثْلَهُنَّ يَتَنَزَّلُ الْأَمْرُ بَيْنَهُنَّ لِتَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَحَاطَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عِلْمًا  

{الله الذي خلق سبع سماوات ومن الأرض مثلهن} يعني سبع أرضين {يتنزل الأمر} الوحي {بينهن} بين السماوات والأرض ينزل به جبريل من السماء السابعة إلى الأرض السابعة {لتعلموا} متعلق بمحذوف، أي أعلمكم بذلك الخلق والتنزيل {أن الله على كل شيء قدير وأن الله قد أحاط بكل شيء علما}.