54. Sūrat al-Qamar

٥٤۔ سُورَةُ القَمَر

54.1 The Day of Judgment is drawing near, yet the disbelievers are not paying heed to the signs of God.

٥٤۔١ مقطع في سُورَةُ القَمَر

quran:54:1In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.

The Hour has come near, and the moon has split ˹in two˺.  

The Hour has drawn near, the Resurrection is close at hand, and the moon has split, it broke in two at ˹Mount˺ Abū Qubays and Qu‘ayqa‘ān, as a sign for the Prophet (s), for it had been demanded of him, and ˹when it took place˺ he said, ‘Bear witness ˹now˺!’ — as reported by the two Shaykhs ˹al-Bukhārī and Muslim˺.
القرآن:٥٤:١بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَانْشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ  

{اقتربت الساعة} قربت القيامة {وانشق القمر} انفلق فلقتين على أبي قبيس وقيقعان آية له ﷺ وقد سئلها فقال (اشهدوا) رواه الشيخان.

And if they see a miracle, they turn away and say, "Passing magic."  

And if they, the disbelievers among Quraysh, see a sign, a miracle of the Prophet (s), they turn away and say, this is: ‘A powerful sorcery!’ (mustamirr, ‘powerful’, derives from al-mirra, meaning ‘strength’; or it ˹mustamirr˺ means ‘incessant’).

وَإِنْ يَرَوْا آيَةً يُعْرِضُوا وَيَقُولُوا سِحْرٌ مُسْتَمِرٌّ  

{وإن يروْا} أي كفار قريش {آية} معجزة له ﷺ {يعرضوا ويقولوا} هذا {سحر مستمر} قوي من المرة: القوة أو دائم.

And they denied and followed their inclinations. But for every matter is a ˹time of˺ settlement.  

And they denied, the Prophet (s), and followed their own desires, as regards ˹their˺ falsehood; and every matter, that is good or evil, will be settled, with that person ˹who is responsible for it˺, either ˹by his ending up˺ in Paradise or in the Fire.

وَكَذَّبُوا وَاتَّبَعُوا أَهْوَاءَهُمْ ۚ وَكُلُّ أَمْرٍ مُسْتَقِرٌّ  

{وكذبوا} النبي ﷺ {واتبعوا أهواءهم} في الباطل {وكل أمر} من الخير والشر {مستقر} بأهله في الجنة أو النار.

And there has already come to them of information that in which there is deterrence -  

And verily there has come to them such tidings, stories about the destruction of communities which denied their messengers, as contain a deterrent, to them (muzdajar is a verbal noun, or a noun of place; the dāl ˹of muzdajar˺ replaces the tā’ of ˹the 8th form˺ ifta‘ala; one may say, izdajartuhu or zajartuhu, to mean ‘I forbade him sternly’; mā, ‘such as’, either indicates a relative clause, or it is qualified by an adjective);

وَلَقَدْ جَاءَهُمْ مِنَ الْأَنْبَاءِ مَا فِيهِ مُزْدَجَرٌ  

{ولقد جاءهم من الأنباء} أخبار إهلاك الأمم المكذبة رسلهم {ما فيه مزدجر} لهم اسم مكان والدال بدل من تاء الافتعال وازدجرته وزجرته: نهيته بغلظة وما موصولة أو موصوفة.

Extensive wisdom - but warning does not avail ˹them˺.  

wisdom (hikmatun is the predicate of an omitted subject, or a substitution for mā, ‘such as’, or for muzdajar, ‘deterrent’) ˹that is˺ far-reaching, complete; but warnings (nudhur is the plural of nadhīr, functioning in the ˹agent˺ sense of mundhir, ‘a warner’, that is to say, ‘those matters which warn them’; mā is either for negation, or it is an interrogative of denial, in which case it stands as a preceding direct object) are of no avail, ˹warnings˺ are of no use with them.

حِكْمَةٌ بَالِغَةٌ ۖ فَمَا تُغْنِ النُّذُرُ  

{حكمة} خبر مبتدأ محذوف أو بدل من ما أو من مزدجر {بالغة} تامة {فما تغن} تنفع فيهم {النذر} جمع نذير بمعنى منذر، أي الأمور المنذورة لهم وما للنفي أو للاستفهام الإنكاري وهي على الثاني مفعول مقدم.

So leave them, ˹O Muhammad˺. The Day the Caller calls to something forbidding,  

So turn away from them! (this is the import of the preceding statement and it completes what is being said). On the day when the Summoner, namely, Isrāfīl (yawma, ‘the day’, is rendered accusative by yakhrujūna, ‘they will emerge’, next ˹verse˺), summons to an awful thing (read nukur or nukr, in the sense of munkar, ‘disagreeable’), ˹a thing˺ which the souls will find awful, and this is the Reckoning;

فَتَوَلَّ عَنْهُمْ ۘ يَوْمَ يَدْعُ الدَّاعِ إِلَىٰ شَيْءٍ نُكُرٍ  

{فتول عنهم} هو فائدة ما قبله وتم به الكلام {يوم يدع الداع} هو إسرافيل وناصب يوم يخرجون بعد {إلى شيءٍ نكُر} بضم الكاف وسكونها، أي منكر تنكره النفوس وهو الحساب.

Their eyes humbled, they will emerge from the graves as if they were locusts spreading,  

with their downcast (khāshi‘an: a variant reading has khushsha‘an), humiliated, looks (absāruhum is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject of the verb ˹yakhrujūna, ‘they will emerge’˺) they, that is, mankind, will emerge from the graves as though they were scattered locusts, not knowing where to go, out of fear and perplexity (this sentence ˹ka’annahum jarādun muntashirun˺ is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject of ˹the verb˺ yakhrujūna, ‘they will emerge’, and so is His saying ˹muhti‘īna˺),

خُشَّعًا أَبْصَارُهُمْ يَخْرُجُونَ مِنَ الْأَجْدَاثِ كَأَنَّهُمْ جَرَادٌ مُنْتَشِرٌ  

{خاشعا} أي ذليلا، وفي قراءة خُشَّعا بضم الخاء وفتح الشين مشددة {أبصارهم} حال من الفاعل {يخرجون} أي الناس {من الأجداث} القبور {كأنهم جراد منتشر} لا يدرون أين يذهبون من الخوف والحيرة، والجملة حال من فاعل يخرجون وكذا قوله.

Racing ahead toward the Caller. The disbelievers will say, "This is a difficult Day."  

scrambling, hastening with their necks stretched out, toward the Summoner. The disbelievers, among them, will say: ‘This is a hard day!’, a difficult one for disbelievers — as is stated in ˹sūrat˺ al-Muddaththir, a day of hardship for the disbelievers ˹Q. 74:9-10˺.

مُهْطِعِينَ إِلَى الدَّاعِ ۖ يَقُولُ الْكَافِرُونَ هَٰذَا يَوْمٌ عَسِرٌ  

{مهطعين} مسرعين مادين أعناقهم {إلى الداعِ يقول الكافرون} منهم {هذا يوم عَسِرٌ} صعب على الكافرين كما في المدثر (يوم عسير على الكافرين).