111. Sūrat al-Masad

١١١۔ سُورَةُ المَسَد

The Palm Fibre (Meccan)

quran:111:1In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.

May the hands of Abu Lahab be ruined, and ruined is he.  

Perish, ruined be, the hands of Abū Lahab, in other words, all of him — the use of ‘hands’ here to denote ˹all of˺ him is figurative, and is because most actions are performed by them; the statement is an invocation — and perish he!, may he be ruined! (this ˹tabba˺ is a predicate, as where one says, ahlakahu’Llāhu wa-qad halak, ‘God destroyed him and he indeed is destroyed’. When the Prophet threatened him with the chastisement, he said, ‘If what my brother’s son says is true, then I shall ransom ˹myself˺ from it with my wealth and sons!’; so the following was revealed:
القرآن:١١١:١بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

تَبَّتْ يَدَا أَبِي لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ  

لما دعا النبي ﷺ قومه وقال: إني نذير لكم بين يدي عذاب شديد، فقال عمه أبو لهب: تبًا لك ألهذا دعوتنا، نزل {تبت} خسرت {يدا أبي لهب} أي جملته وعبر عنها باليدين مجازًا لأن أكثر الأفعال تزاول بهما، وهذه الجملة دعاء {وتبَّ} خسر هو، وهذه خبر كقولهم: أهلكه الله وقد هلك، ولما خوَّفه النبي بالعذاب، فقال: إن كان ابن أخي حقاً فإني أفتدي منه بمالي وولدي نزل: {ما أغنى عنه ماله وما كسب}.

His wealth will not avail him or that which he gained.  

His wealth will not avail him, nor what he has earned (wa-kasab means wa-kasbihi, that is to say, his sons; mā aghnā means ˹mā˺ yughnī).

مَا أَغْنَىٰ عَنْهُ مَالُهُ وَمَا كَسَبَ  

{ما أَغنى عنه ماله وما كسب} أي وكسبه، أي ولده ما أغنى بمعنى يغني.

He will ˹enter to˺ burn in a Fire of ˹blazing˺ flame  

He will ˹soon˺ enter a Fire of flames, that is to say, ˹a fire that is˺ flaming and ignited (this ˹statement˺ is the source of his nickname, ˹which was given to him˺ on account of his flaming reddish fair face),

سَيَصْلَىٰ نَارًا ذَاتَ لَهَبٍ  

{سيصلى ناراً ذات لهب} أي تلهب وتوقد فهي مآل تكنيته لتلهب وجهه إشراقاً وحمرة.

And his wife ˹as well˺ - the carrier of firewood.  

and his wife (wa’mra’atuhu is a supplement to the person ˹of the verb˺ yaslā, ‘he will enter’, separated by the clause of the direct object and its qualification) — and this was Umm Jamīl — the carrier (read hammālatu or hammālata) of firewood, cactus and thorns which she used to fling into the path of the Prophet (s).

وَامْرَأَتُهُ حَمَّالَةَ الْحَطَبِ  

{وامرأته} عطف على ضمير يصلى سوغه الفصل بالمفعول وصفته وهي أم جميل {حمالة} بالرفع والنصب {الحطب} الشوك والسعدان تلقيه في طريق النبي ﷺ .

Around her neck is a rope of ˹twisted˺ fiber.  

with a rope of palm-fibre around her neck (fī jīdihā hablun min masadin is a circumstantial qualifier referring to hammālata’l-hatab, which in turn is ˹either˺ a description of imra’atahu, ‘his wife’, or the predicate of an implied subject). Meccan or Medinese, consisting of 4 or 5 verses. The Prophet (s) was asked about his Lord and the following was revealed:

فِي جِيدِهَا حَبْلٌ مِنْ مَسَدٍ  

{في جيدها} عنقها {حبل من مسد} أي ليف وهذه الجملة حال من حمالة الحطب الذي هو نعت لامرأته أو خبر مبتدأ مقدر.