112. Sūrat al-Ikhlāṣ

١١٢۔ سُورَةُ الإخْلَاص

Sincerity (Meccan)

quran:112:1In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.

Say, "He is Allah, ˹who is˺ One,  

Say: ‘He is God, One (Allāhu is the predicate of huwa, ‘He is’, and ahadun is its substitution or a second predicate).
القرآن:١١٢:١بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ  

سئل النبي ﷺ عن ربه فنزل: {قل هو الله أحد} فالله خبر هو وأحد بدل منه أو خبر ثان.

Allah, the Eternal Refuge.  

God, the Self-Sufficient, Besought of all (Allāhu’l-samad constitute a subject and a predicate) ˹al-samad means˺ the One Who is always sought at times of need,

اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ  

{الله الصمد} مبتدأ وخبر أي المقصود في الحوائج على الدوام.

He neither begets nor is born,  

He neither begot, for no likeness of Him can exist, nor was begotten, since createdness is precluded in His case.

لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ  

{لم يلد} لانتفاء مجانسته {ولم يولد} لانتفاء الحدوث عنه.

Nor is there to Him any equivalent."  

Nor is there anyone equal to Him’, neither match nor comparison (lahu, ‘to Him’, is semantically connected to kufuwan, ‘equal’, but precedes it because it is the object of the intended negation; ahadun, ‘anyone’, which is the subject of yakun, ‘is there’, has been placed after the predicate of the latter ˹kufuwan, ‘equal’˺ in order to retain the harmony of the end-rhyme ˹of the verses˺). Meccan or Medinese, consisting of 5 verses. This sūra and the next one were revealed when Labīd the Jew placed a spell on the Prophet (s) using a string with eleven knots. God informed him of this and of its place, and so it was brought before the Prophet (s) and he was commanded to ‘seek refuge ˹in God˺’ by means of these two sūras; and so each time he recited a verse from them, a knot would become undone and he would sense an alleviation, until in the end all the knots had been undone and he stood up invigorated, as if he had previously been hobbled to the ground.

وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ  

{ولم يكن له كفواً أحد} أي مكافئًا ومماثلاً، وله متعلق بكفوًا، وقُدِّم عليه لأنه مَحطُّ القصد بالنفي وأَخَّر أحد وهو اسم يكن عن خبرها رعاية للفاصلة.