91. Sūrat ash-Shams

٩١۔ سُورَةُ الشــَّمْس

91.1 Success depends on keeping the soul pure and failure depends on corrupting it.

٩١۔١ مقطع في سُورَةُ الشــَّمْس

quran:91:1In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.

By the sun and its brightness  

By the sun and her morning light,
القرآن:٩١:١بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

وَالشَّمْسِ وَضُحَاهَا  

{والشمس وضحاها} ضوؤها.

And ˹by˺ the moon when it follows it  

and ˹by˺ the moon when it follows her, rising after she has set,

وَالْقَمَرِ إِذَا تَلَاهَا  

{والقمر إذا تلاها} تبعها طالعا عند غروبها.

And ˹by˺ the day when it displays it  

and ˹by˺ the day when it reveals her, as it rises ˹high˺,

وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا جَلَّاهَا  

{والنهار إذا جلاها} بارتفاعه.

And ˹by˺ the night when it covers it  

and ˹by˺ the night when it enshrouds her, covering her up with its darkness (idhā, ‘when’, in all three instances is an absolute adverbial, operated by the verbal action of the oath).

وَاللَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَاهَا  

{والليل إذا يغشاها} يغطيها بظلمته وإذا في الثلاثة لمجرد الظرفية والعامل فيها فعل القسم.

And ˹by˺ the sky and He who constructed it  

By the heaven and the One Who built it,

وَالسَّمَاءِ وَمَا بَنَاهَا  

{والسماء وما بناها}.

And ˹by˺ the earth and He who spread it  

and ˹by˺ the earth and the One Who spread it, laid out flat.

وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا طَحَاهَا  

{والأرض وما طحاها} بسطها.

And ˹by˺ the soul and He who proportioned it  

and ˹by˺ the soul, that is to say, ˹by˺ all souls, and the One Who proportioned it, in its created form (mā in all three instances relates to the verbal action, or functions as man, ‘the one who’),

وَنَفْسٍ وَمَا سَوَّاهَا  

{ونفس} بمعنى نفوس {وما سوَّاها} في الخلقة وما في الثلاثة مصدرية أو بمعنى من.

And inspired it ˹with discernment of˺ its wickedness and its righteousness,  

and inspired to discern its vices and piety, He pointed out to it the path of good and that of evil (the placing of taqwā, ‘piety’, second takes into account the ˹rhyme˺ endings of the verses; the response to the oath is ˹the following:˺)

فَأَلْهَمَهَا فُجُورَهَا وَتَقْوَاهَا  

{فألهمها فجورها وتقواها} بيَّن لها طريق الخير والشر وأخر التقوى رعاية لرؤوس الآي وجواب القسم:

He has succeeded who purifies it,  

Successful indeed (qad: the lām ˹of laqad, ‘indeed’˺ has been omitted from it for the sake of brevity) will be the one who purifies it, purges it of sins,

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَنْ زَكَّاهَا  

{قد أفلح} حذفت منه اللام لطول الكلام {مَنْ زكَّاها} طهرها من الذنوب.

And he has failed who instills it ˹with corruption˺.  

and he will indeed have failed he who eclipses it, he who obscures it with ˹acts of˺ disobedience (dassāhā is actually dassasahā, but the second sīn has been replaced with an alif for ˹phonetic˺ ease).

وَقَدْ خَابَ مَنْ دَسَّاهَا  

{وقد خاب} خسر {مَنْ دسَّاها} أخفاها بالمعصية وأصله دسها أبدلت السين الثانية ألفا تخفيفا.