74. Sūrat al-Muddaththir

٧٤۔ سُورَةُ المُدَّثــِّر

74.1 Instructions to the Prophet for cleanliness and patience.

٧٤۔١ مقطع في سُورَةُ المُدَّثــِّر

quran:74:1In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.

O you who covers himself ˹with a garment˺,  

O you enveloped in your mantle, the Prophet (s) (al-muddaththir is actually al-mutadaththir, but the tā’ has been assimilated with the dāl) that is to say, the one who is enwrapped in his clothes when the Revelation ˹Gabriel˺ comes down on him,
القرآن:٧٤:١بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُدَّثِّرُ  

{يا أيها المدثر} النبي ﷺ وأصله المتدثر أدغمت التاء في الدال، أي المتلفف بثيابه عند نزول الوحي عليه.

Arise and warn  

arise and warn: threaten the people of Mecca with ˹punishment in˺ the Fire should they refuse to believe;

قُمْ فَأَنْذِرْ  

{قم فأنذر} خوِّف أهل مكة النار إن لم يؤمنوا.

And your Lord glorify  

and magnify your Lord, exalt ˹Him˺ above what is ascribed ˹to Him˺ by the idolaters;

وَرَبَّكَ فَكَبِّرْ  

{وربك فكبر} عظِّم عن إشراك المشركين.

And your clothing purify  

and purify your clothes, from impurity, or ˹it means˺ shorten them, instead of ˹imitating˺ the way in which the Arabs ˹are wont to˺ let their robes drag ˹behind them˺, out of vanity, for perhaps they will be sullied by some impurity;

وَثِيَابَكَ فَطَهِّرْ  

{وثيابك فطهر} عن النجاسة أو قصرها خلاف جر العرب ثيابهم خيلاء فربما أصابتها نجاسة.

And uncleanliness avoid  

and shun ˹all˺ defilement, ˹this rijz˺ was explained by the Prophet (s) to be the graven images; in other words, persist in shunning them.

وَالرُّجْزَ فَاهْجُرْ  

{والرُّجز} فسره النبي ﷺ بالأوثان {فاهجر} أي دم على هجره.

And do not confer favor to acquire more  

And do not grant a favour seeking greater gain (read tastakthiru as a circumstantial qualifier) in other words, do not give something in order to demand more in return: this ˹stipulation˺ is specific to the Prophet (s), since he is enjoined to ˹adopt˺ the fairest traits and the noblest of manners;

وَلَا تَمْنُنْ تَسْتَكْثِرُ  

{ولا تمنن تستكثر} بالرفع حال، أي لا تعط شيئا لتطلب أكثر منه وهذا خاص به ﷺ لأنه مأمور بأجمل الأخلاق وأشرف الآداب.

But for your Lord be patient.  

and endure patiently for the sake of your Lord, ˹all His˺ commands and prohibitions.

وَلِرَبِّكَ فَاصْبِرْ  

{ولربك فاصبر} على الأوامر والنواهي.